Public Distribution System By SHAILENDRA YADAV Evolution of Public Distribution System in India
ABOUT ME SHAILENDRA YADAV Assistant professor @ Babulal Tarabai Institute of Research and Technology (BTIRT), Sagar M.F. Faculty @ Mantra IAS Academy Sagar M.P. -I am passionate about Teaching ,like to play cricket, love Painting,Travelling etc te about Teaching ,like to RATE REVIEW RECOMMEND
Evolution of Public Distribution System Public distribution system in India has developed since many decades. In Indian scenario, there is numerous natural disasters occurring and it results in famines and droughts that cause acute scarcity conditions. > Government of India took various measures to help the victims in which the food security system was initiated. Such effort was taken up for the first time in 1939 under the British regime when the Second World War started. > The government thought of distributing the food grains to the poor of some selected cities in which there was scarcity and also a situation where private, failed to provide commodities affordable by the poor.
In 1943, after the great Bengal Famine, this distribution system was stretched to some more cities and towns. Continued periods of economic stress and disturbance like wars and deprivations gave rise to a form of food security system. > Such type of food security service existed in India for many years, in the shape of constitutional rationing in particular urban areas and continues to be present even today in a few metropolitan centres.
The development of Public Distribution System in India From 1939 to 1965 > In the first period, the Public Distribution System was basically visualized as rationing system to distribute the scarce commodities and later it was seen as a Fair price system in contrast with the private trade. Rice and wheat occupied a very high share in the food grains distribution. Government was aware of extending the Public Distribution System to rural areas but it was not implemented > The operation of Public Distribution System was unbalanced and dependent on imports of PL 480 food grains with little internal procurement. In operation, imports constituted major proportion in the supplies for Public Distribution System during this period. Procurement prices offered were not remunerative
From 1965 to 1975 In the middle period ,Stoppage of PL 480 imports forced the government to obtain grains internally., India took a significant leap in the direction of providing a more sustainable institutional framework for providing food security FCI and Agricultural Prices Commission (APC) were established at that time which are now known as Bureau of Agricultural Costs and Prices (BACP) Commission in 1965 marked the commencement of this phase. On the basis of BACP's recommended prices, the FCI procures the food grains to distribute through Public Distribution System and a part of the procured quantity is kept as "buffer stocks" to meet any unanticipated catastrophe situation. Major components of this system were traditional arrangements and procedures for procurement, stocking and distribution of food grains
From 1975 onwards > In the third period, there was an increase in the food grains production in the country. The buffer stock accumulation too increased greatly. With this, the initial stress on buffer stock maintenance and price stabilisation shifted to increase in Public Distribution System supplies. > In fifth five year plan, programmes such as Food for work, Antyodaya were started with a view to lessen poverty as well as to reduce the overstocking of FCI godowns The imports slowly degenerated in this period and during the year 1975, there was a net export of food grains though it was a small quantity. > In the beginning of eighties, some state governments extended the coverage of ublic Distribution System to rural areas and also introduced the target grouping approach. These states are Kerala, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, and Andhra Pradesh.
In the 198o the PDS coverage was extended to the rural areas. By 1985, efforts were made to make it available to all the tribal blocks of the country > and inblitytorchtothel bst ormer o ahonoun few of them are as followg its bias towards the urban Today, with the network of around 5 Lakh fair price shops PDS is virtually world's largest system ofits kind However, PDS was criticized for several reasons. A few of them are as follows: Its bias towards the urban consumers and inabilityto reach to the last corner of the country Some states such as Bihar and UP were virtually out of the PDS network. There are no criteria of monitoring the high income grouppurchases more than low income purchases. The coverage and network of PDS does not ensure that the poorest or the poor is benefited/ The PDS has been untargeted and proved to be regressive in some parts of the nations > Consumers get inferior food grains in ration shops. Because, the dealers replace good supplies received from the F.C.I. with inferior stock. Issue of the bogus cards in large numbers which are used to procure the grains from the PDS and sell them in open market. The dealers have little profit so indulge in malpractices. In other words, despite of having world's largest Public Distribution System, there are people dying in the country out of hunger >
Consumers get inferior food grains in ration shops. Because, the dealers replace good supplies received from the F.C.I. with inferior stock. Issue of the bogus cards in large numbers which are used to procure the grains from the PDS and sell them in open market. > The dealers have little profit so indulge in malpractices. In other words, despite of having world's largest Public Distribution System, there are people dying in the country out of hunger.
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Faculty @ Mantra IAS Academy Sagar /Assist.Prof/UPSC/JRF Qualified/PhD/Antenna Design Expert/Scientist@ Research Foundation India