WORLD HISTORY: League of Nations Presented by: Navneet Kaur ria
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Failures / Causes of Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations 4) Mockery of Collective Security: The League of Nations failed to check any violations of the frontiers established after the WWI through the peace treaties 1923 resolution: It allowed each member the freedom to decide if it wanted to a contribute any military resources during activation of the collective security clause This literally nullified the responsibility that all the member nations had in their duty of checking any act of war by another member nation. Failure of Geneva Protocol (1924): The British and French governments had proposed a Geneva Protocol b) It provided for compulsory arbitration of disputes. It committed the League of Nations members to come to immediate military aid of a victim of aggression and also aimed at general disarmament In the Geneva Protocol the member states would declare themselves "ready to consent to important limitations of their sovereignty in favor of the League of Nations". But, USA condemned the proposal (due to its Policy of Isolation) and the next Conservative government in Britain withdrew the British support to the protocol. Thus, the protocol was . never ratified.
c) Economic Crisis of 1929 led to poverty and unemployment and consequently, right wing governments came to power across the world These governments were more aggressive and violated the League Covenant For example, Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931, Abyssinia was invaded by Italy in 1935, the Spanish Civil War of 1936 saw military intervention by Mussolini and Hitler in favor of France, Japan invaded China in 1937 and Hitler annexed Austria in 1938. In all these cases, the League proved powerless and failed to check the military aggression. In case of Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the decision of the League was that the Japanese should evacuate Manchuria. Japan rejected this decision and consequently withdrew from the League in 1933 Military or economic sanctions against Japan were not even discussed as Britain and France were under economic stress due to the Great Depression Similarly, when Abyssinia appealed to the League against the Italian aggression of 1935, the League applied sanctions but only half-heartedly. Italy was still allowed to import important goods like coal, oil and steel, and thus, the sanctions failed to coerce Italy to withdravw from Abyssinia . 2 . 3
U.S.S.R. MANCHUKUO MANCHURIA A S I A Tokyo CHOSEN Tokygo KOREA) JAPAN Peiping CHINA LEDO BURMA ROAD| ROAD Shanghai A Ledo Chungking INDIA AREA ENLARGED BELOW Calcutta hio Kunming HONG KONG Great Britain) BURMA Rangoon Philipp South China Sea THAILAND Sea Bay of Bengal FRENCH INDOCHINA PHILIPPINES Japan occupies Burma, May 1942MALAY STATES
French land Land under British control Libya Italian land Egypt FRENCH EMPIRE IN AFRICA Eritrea Sudan Abyssinia Italian Somaliland
1938 LATVIA DENMARK SWEDEN LITHUAMIA Danzlg E3t Pruss a THE " NETHERLANDS GERMANY BELGIUM POLAND LUx FRANCE SLOWAKIA SWITZER LAND AUSTRIA HUNGARY RUMANIA TALY YUGOSLAVIA
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