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Ancient History (South India) Siva Prasad
Topics Covered . Satavahanas Rashtrakutas Pallavas . Kalachuris of Kalyana Cholas . Gangas of Talakad . Kadambas of Banavasi . Vakatakas . Chalukyas of Badami Hoysalas . Chalukyas of Kalyana . Kakatiyas . Yadavas of Devagiri . Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi
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Cholas The Tamil power reached its peack during the rule of Cholas. Vijayala was the founder of later Cholas. They ruled from Thanjavore their most famous rulers were: (1) Rajaraja I who overran almost every adversary including Ceylon. He built the famous Siva temple at Tanjore (2) Rajendra I another ruler built a second capital at Gangaikonda cholapuram (3) Rajadhiraja Il was another great ruler who lost his life in the Kuppam battle against Western Chalukyas of Badami. (4) Kulottunga I (1070-1122) introduced land reforms. The Chola power declined towards the end of 12th century and were replaced by Pandyans of Madurai
Cholas . The Cholas built some magnificient temples. . The two most famous were the Brihadeswara Temple at Thanjavore (Tamil Nadu) and the Kalahasthi temple Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh. . Their temples had many novel features like principal shrines, additional shrines, square shikaras, huge prakaras and the excellent images of Siva in Tandava Pose. A masterpiece of Chola sculpture is the famous Nataraja image in the temple at Chidambaram . In the prakara (Passageways) beautiful paintings can be seen. They were Shaivites.
Cholas . Cholas dug many irrigation tanks in the Cauvery delta region. The Cholas will be remembered for their village administration. Three types of village assemblies are recorded-sabha (for Brahmin Villages), Ur (for the common people) and nagaram (for towns people) . The Uttarameru inscription of Parantaka mentions in detail the village administration of Cholas . The Sabha used to administer through Committees (Variyams).
Cholas The leaders were choosen by lots (Kudavolai). The village councils performed many functions. . Sabhas were found in Brahmadeya villages (granted to Brahmins) . The territories were divided into nadu, mandalam and Kurram.
Gangas of Talakad Dadiga was the founder of Ganga dynasty guided by his guru Sinhanandi. . Durvinitha was the greatest among the Gangas who conquered Coimbatore, Chengalpat & Salem from Pallavas after entering into a matrimonial alliance with Chalukyas. He was a Scholar and patron of arts and believed to have written a contemporary on Kiratarjuniya and translated Gunadhya's Brihatkatha from Prkarit to Sanskrit Pujyapada, a Jain Scholar, wrote Prakrit to Sanskrit. Shaddavatara on Sanskrit grammar.
Gangas of Talakad .The Ganga period witnessed the emergence of the construction of free standing pillars of two types: . () Manasasthamba with Jain figures facing four directions at the top . (ii) Brahmadevasthamba with carvings of flowers etc., The Gangas also built Jain Basadis, temples at Talakadu (Pataleswara, and the Kapileswara temple at Manne).
Gangas of Talakad Dhanjaya wrote Raghavapanavijaya and Vidhibasimha wrote Gadya- chintamani. They were benevolent rulers and had Heggades as officers & were perhaps the first to install an administrative system in the old Mysore region.