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Ancient History (South India) Siva Prasad
The Satavahanas The Satavahanas were the feudatories of the Mauryans, and with the decline of the Mauryans, declared themselves independent and must be credited as the first independent rulers of the South. Their capital was at Paithan in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra and they ruled over large tracts of Karnataka. . Simukha was the founder of Satavahanas. Hala and Gautamiputra Satakarni were their most well known rulers.
The Satavahanas The Satavahanas brought the South into a single political organisation and divided the Kingdom into janapada, Vishya and Seeme. . They seem to have started the systemof land-grants to guilds, Buddhists and Brahmins . Hala their King was a good writer and wrote the Gathasapatha Sati. Gundadhya wrote Brihakatha (about their rulers). Both were in Prakrit. Sarvaverma's Katantra was a well known book on Sanskrit grammar. The Amaravati Stupa (Andhra Pradesh) and Karle cave hall or Chaitya in Maharashtra are their well known (Plus Nasik cave temples) works of architecture.
The Satavahanas . The famed Ajanta and Ellora cave paintings began during their rule. The Satavahanas brought vast areas in Godavari and Krishna basins under paddy cultivation They also introduced the system of land grants to Brahmins and feudatories.
Pallavas The Pallavas suppressed the Kalabrahas and replaced lkshavukus and came to power based at Kanchi. . The Pallavas throughout their rule fought the Kadambas, Chalukyas, Pandyas and Cholas. Simhavishnu was the founder of Pallavas. . The Cholas put an end to Pallava Rule.
Pallavas . The Pallavas were Shaivites and patronized Brahmical Hinduism. They were patrons of Sanskrit literature. Dandin was the court poet of Narasimhaverman and wrote Dasakumaracharitam and Kavya Darsha Mahendraverman himself wrote Mattavaliasaprahasana, a satirical work The Pallavas were great builders. . Their Rath temples at Mammalapuram or Mahabalipuram and the shore temple there and the famous Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi may be regarded as the first major Dravidan temples.
Cholas The Tamil power reached its peack during the rule of Cholas. Vijayala was the founder of later Cholas. They ruled from Thanjavore their most famous rulers were: (1) Rajaraja I who overran almost every adversary including Ceylon. He built the famous Siva temple at Tanjore (2) Rajendra I another ruler built a second capital at Gangaikonda cholapuram (3) Rajadhiraja Il was another great ruler who lost his life in the Kuppam battle against Western Chalukyas of Badami. (4) Kulottunga I (1070-1122) introduced land reforms. The Chola power declined towards the end of 12th century and were replaced by Pandyans of Madurai
Cholas . The Cholas built some magnificient temples. . The two most famous were the Brihadeswara Temple at Thanjavore (Tamil Nadu) and the Kalahasthi temple Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh. . Their temples had many novel features like principal shrines, additional shrines, square shikaras, huge prakaras and the excellent images of Siva in Tandava Pose. A masterpiece of Chola sculpture is the famous Nataraja image in the temple at Chidambaram . In the prakara (Passageways) beautiful paintings can be seen. They were Shaivites.
Cholas . Cholas dug many irrigation tanks in the Cauvery delta region. The Cholas will be remembered for their village administration. Three types of village assemblies are recorded-sabha (for Brahmin Villages), Ur (for the common people) and nagaram (for towns people) . The Uttarameru inscription of Parantaka mentions in detail the village administration of Cholas . The Sabha used to administer through Committees (Variyams).
Cholas The leaders were choosen by lots (Kudavolai). The village councils performed many functions. . Sabhas were found in Brahmadeya villages (granted to Brahmins) . The territories were divided into nadu, mandalam and Kurram.
Gangas of Talakad Dadiga was the founder of Ganga dynasty guided by his guru Sinhanandi. . Durvinitha was the greatest among the Gangas who conquered Coimbatore, Chengalpat & Salem from Pallavas after entering into a matrimonial alliance with Chalukyas. He was a Scholar and patron of arts and believed to have written a contemporary on Kiratarjuniya and translated Gunadhya's Brihatkatha from Prkarit to Sanskrit Pujyapada, a Jain Scholar, wrote Prakrit to Sanskrit. Shaddavatara on Sanskrit grammar.
Gangas of Talakad .The Ganga period witnessed the emergence of the construction of free standing pillars of two types: . () Manasasthamba with Jain figures facing four directions at the top . (ii) Brahmadevasthamba with carvings of flowers etc., The Gangas also built Jain Basadis, temples at Talakadu (Pataleswara, and the Kapileswara temple at Manne).
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Topics Covered . Satavahanas Rashtrakutas Pallavas . Kalachuris of Kalyana Cholas . Gangas of Talakad . Kadambas of Banavasi . Vakatakas . Chalukyas of Badami Hoysalas . Chalukyas of Kalyana . Kakatiyas . Yadavas of Devagiri . Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi