Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Model answers for UPSC CSE Mains GS paper 3 - 2017: 7-9
uestion /: India has achieved remarkable successes in unarmed space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbiter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space missions. What are the main obstacles to launching a manned space mission, both in terms of technology ang logistics? Examine criticall Answer: Despite its stellar success in unmanned missions (recent launch of 104 satellites in one go, cheapest mission to mars etc) India is yet to join the league of USA, Russia in manned space missions Main obstacles include: Technology- Lack of equipments such as Centrifuge machines and zero gravity simulators, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is in initial stages of testing, Laclk of advanced propulsion systems which could reduce transit time. 1.
2. Logistics- Lack of clarity on process of selection of Astronauts, inadequate research in Aerospace Medicine, lack of an Astronaut Training Centre in India. 3. Financial-_Budgetary constraints as India is still a developing country, lack of mechanism for effective private sector collaboration. Despite these obstacles ISRO has dedicated and skilled workforce to realize this dream at the earliest. ISRO can enter into technology sharing agreements with countries such as US, Russia to develop manned missions. Funds from the commercial arm of ISRO can be used to finance this project.
Question 8: Not many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming a reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impact on the environment. Answer: River linking has become a reality today as recently Krishna-Godavari rivers were linked. Some benefits are: Irrigation- It will bring water to drought prone areas, reduce dependence on monsoon thereby improving agricultural productivity and fisheries Inland water transport- make transport of goods cheaper Power generation- small hydro dams can be built to solve electricity shortage Linking remote areas- North East regions can be linked to mainland India through Brahmaputra, also improve rural-urban linkages thereby reducing distress migration 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Prevent floods as excess water can be diverted. Eg Kosi in Bihar
Possible impacts on environment: 1. Diversion of rivers can cause geographical changes in the natural course of the 2. It can cause damage to the marine life as they will be exposed to new waters 3. river and alien species, blades of boats have injured many Dolphins in ganges Change in breeding grounds may destroy some species. There will be greater need for land leading to submergence of many landforms. Increasing water pollution will lead to eutrophication and reduce dissolved oxygen. 4. These negatives can be minimised by conducting an Environment Impact Assessment and taking Civil society into confidence before implementation of such projects.
Question 9: Discuss the potential threats of Cyber attack and the security framework to prevent it. Answer: Cyberspace has become the latest theatre of action. A recent study by ASSOCHAM reveals that there has been a 350% rise in cyber attacks in India from 2011 to 2014. Some of the threats are: 1. Attacks on Critical Information Infrastructure (CID that can have a debilitating impact on the nation's ecomomy, health and security. 2. Recently 19 banks reported data theft which may impede the process of digital financial inclusion India is undergoing right now. Threat to privacy and data as seen in recent Ransomware attacks (Wannacry) Cripple administration- recently Pakistani hackers defaced the website of Kerala Government, Legion attacks Will hamper implementation of Digital India programme 3. 4. 5.
Security framework developed to prevent cyber atta cks: CERT-IN and Cert-Fin(for financial sector) has been set up for emergency response in the event of a cyber attack. Legislations- Infor National Cyber Security Policy 2013 envisages building indigenous security tech and training 5 lakh workforce in cyber security. 1. 2. 3. nation Technology Act, 2000 4. Recently in 2016 Indian Cyber Coordination Centre has been set up 5. India has teamed up with US, UK for mutual sharing of best practices 6. RBI has also notified a cyber security framework to all banks to improve their preparedness 7. Events such as Cyber Swachta Kendra, Ground Zero Summit have been conducted Cyberspace has become an integral facet of security of a nation and thus concrete steps must be taken to safeguard it.