Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Model answers for UPSC CSE Mains GS paper 3 - 2017: 4-6
uestion 4:Explain various types of revolutions that took place in Agriculture after independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India? Answer: Agriculture accounts for over 50 % of employment and 17% of GDP in India. During independence, Indian agriculture was highly backward with low productivity thereby forcing India to import food grains from the US under the PL-480 programme. This grave situation necessitated the various revolutions: Green Revolution- During the 1970s, high yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers, farm mechanization, introduction of various agri subsidies. White Revolution- Operation flood, Verghese Kurien, ANAND- AMUL, Dairy cooperatives making India the largest producer of milk in the world. 1. 2.
3. Ongoing Blue Revolution- for development of fisheries 4. Rainbow revolution- Pink for prawns, red for tomato, silver for eggs etc Helped in poverty alleviation- increased agricultural productivity led to better returns to farmers, greater support from government pulled them out of clutches of informal money- lenders, access to global market ensured increased earnings and standard of living. Helped in Food security- Green revolution transformed India's image from begging bowl to net food exporter, establishment of Food Corporation of India, capable of rolling out National Food security Act, 2013 guaranteeing Right to food. But urgent reforms still required in the form of 2nd Green revolution focussing on East and South India, Neel Kranti Mission by Government, thrust on food processing, establishment of e-NAM to double farmer's income by 2022
Question 5: What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit? How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor families? Answer: Food Processing contributes to about 10% of Agriculture GDP. Small ing units form the core of the food processing in n India. However they have been poorly accepted because: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Poor economies of scale Lack of market intelligence, Indians prefer fresh food and are price sensitive High cost of packaging, transport and distribution Multiple and complicated tax regimes, harassment by food inspectors Lack of trained m Lack of stable yield, lick of organised retall anpower
Food processing will benefit the farmers in the following wavs: 1. Prevent wastage-Nearly 20-25% of fruits and vegetables are spoiled causing 2. Value addition and competitive pricing can improve returns to the farmer and 3. It reduces risk and chances of farmer suicides loss to farmer thereby reduce incidence of poverty. It reduces distress migration of young farmers as food processing creates bridge between agriculture and manufacturing. Contract farming guarantees income and also imparts managerial skills in farmers. 4. Food Processing has been recognised as a Sunrise sector by the Government and several schemes such as SAMPADA, Mega Food Park scheme, World Food India event , draft Food Processing Policy of India has been initiated
Question 6: Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in India to treat a wide variety of medical conditions including Leukaemia, Thalassemia, damaged cornea and severe burns. Describe briefly what the stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments? Answer: Stem cell therapy is a type of treatment that uses stem cells to treat a disease. Stem cells are taken from bone marrow or adipose tissue in upper thigh They have the unique ability to become any cell in the body. They are the ultimate repair -kit. Its advantages include: It doesn't damage the nearby healthy cells and is not rejected by the body as it belongs to the same body. Other treatments may have side -effects. 1.
3. It provides benefits in therapeutic cloning and regenerative medicine 4. The time taken for injuries and wounds to heal is reduced as stem cell therapy provides natural growth factors. Patients can return to their normal activities as quickly as possible. Muscle flexibility is retained. It is also less painful and reduces risk for future injuries compared to other treatments. 6. The number of diseases that can be cured using this treatment is limitless Considering the mushrooming of stem cell clinics in India, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Department of Biotechnology have come out with National guidelines for Stem Cell Research in July 2017, to improve governance and ensure benefit of this treatment reaches the maximum number of people