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Model answers for UPSC CSE Mains GS paper 3 - 2017: 13-15
Question 13: What are the salient features of inclusive growth? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyse and suggest measures for inclusive growth Answer: Inclusive growth means comprehensive and multidimensional growth that creates equal opportunities and development for all without leaving behind any section of people. Various facets include economic inclusion, social inclusion, political inclusion Some of its salient features include non- discrimination, gender sensitive society, environmental protection, equality of opportunity, empowering people, poverty reduction, good governance, bringing excluded sections into mainstream society, equal thrust on social development etc. The 11th FYP aimed for faster and inclusive growth.
Yes, India has been experiencing such inclusive growth: 1. 2. Economic inclusion- JAM trinity has been rolled out to fasten financial inclusion, MGNREG A, shift to Multidimensional Poverty Index Political inclusion-33% reservation for women, sc/st in 73/74th CA Social inclusion- recently bills on protection of Rights of transgenders, disabled people was passed, NRHM, SSA, National health policy 2016 focusses on elderly and women 3. But some issues still persists: Recent Oxfam report show that 2% of Indians own over 80% of its wealth. Bill for 33% reservation for women in parliament is still pending, at panchayat level women candidates are only proxies for their husbands India still lags behind Sri Lanka, Kenya in HDI indicators 1. 2. 3.
Measures to improve: Implementation of Digital india to ensure citizen participation in governance Using Socio -Economic caste census to identify vulnerable people in requirement of state assistance Improved thrust upon Stand up India scheme, SC/ST venture capital fund scheme Encouraging SHGs Passing the Bill on women reservation in parliament Taking steps to improve labour rate participation of women and bridging pay parity Skill India mission PM Gram Sadak Yojana, Ujwala scheme for LPG to rural women, Deen dayal upadhyaya grameen vidyutikaran yojana 1. 2. 3. 4. 7. 8.
Question 14: What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful in stabilising yield of the crops in the system? Answer: India is one of the largest producer of rice and wheat yet it lags behind China, US and Brazil in terms of yield per acre. Rice and Wheat are crucial to maintain buffer stock and roll out social security schemes such as Mid day meals scheme, national food security act Major reasons for declining yield: Over dependence on monsoon leading to inadequate irrigation and drought in certain areas. Karnataka is suffering from drought for the 3rd consecutive year Rice requires stagnant water during growth. 1.
2. Lack of awareness of traditional practices such as System of Rice intensification, growing rice in areas below sea level as done in Kerala, Rice and Fish cultivation like in Arunachal Pra desh. Non- availability of high yielding varieties of seeds, poor research also 4. Lack of resistance to pests eg; recent Pest attacks on wheat in punjab, problem of weeds. Weedicides and pesticides kill soil organisms essential for soil health 5. Wide disparity of fertilizer use within country. Some states like Tamil nadu, punjab use excess fertilizer, but Assam and orissa use less. Excessive use of urea makes the stem fleshy and fall on ground. 6. Poor agriculture mechanization such as precision seeders, laser land levellers etoc
Crop diversification includes crop rotation, intercropping, multicropping etc. Benefits of crop diversification 1. Growing pulses and legumes improves soil fertility as they help in fixing to improve vield: 2. Year round employment and income, reduces seasonality, risk and stabilizes 3. Reduces pest as diversification renders host crop less apparent for pest 4. Improves human nutrition, balanced diet and food security as equal focus on 5. Since high dependence on monsoon, less water intensive crops can be grown 6. Environmental benefits such as groundwater recharge, reduce soil erosion, nitrogen. income of the farmer colonization both food crops and cash crops during lean season conserve soil moisture
Question 15: How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, MSP. and food processing for small and marginal farmers ! Answers: Subsidies are essential because over 50% of the population is dependant on Agriculture for a living. Many types of subsidies are provided eg: Price subsidies (MSP), Input subsidy (fertilizer, electricity) Impact of subsidy on cropping pattern and diversity excessive price subsidy is provided for rice and wheat and less to pulses. Hence farmers are preferring to grow cereal over pulses which has created di agricultural production. Irrigation subsidy has encouraged farmers to grow water intensive crops like Mint, sugarcane sbalance in and soybean e ven in dry lan d areas
Impact of subsidy on economy of farmers: Over 92% of farmers in India are small and marginal farmers who are dependent on informal money lenders. They lack access to markets and resort to distress selling to intermediaries. Subsidies help in reducing production cost and minimise risk of losses, realise greater profit margin and prevents debt burden. Significance of crop insuran In the event of pest attack, failure of monsoon, natural disasters like drought, flood, crop insurance schemes such as Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana can absorb farmers losses and prevent farmer suicides. Use of ICT, low premium rates, increased crop coverage and promise of full compensation are special features of this scheme
Significance of MSP: Provides guaranteed return as government purchases produce if market rate fall below MSP, prevents distress sale and protects from subsequent debt burden, protects farmer from market failures. It also helps to control inflation and maintain food security. At present government provides MSP for only 26 crops and only 6% farmers are benefitted from MSP. Shanta Kumar committee recommendations can be implemented by bringing in Price deficiency payment (PDP) as part of MSP reforms Significance of food processing: It can prevent wastage of produce and save farmers money. Value addition increases additional income for farmers eg. cheese is costlier than milk. Contract farming imparts managerial skills in farmers, links agriculture to manufacturing thereby increasing employment and retention of youth in agriculture.