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5-Inducers, Inhibitors and Antifoams
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Importance of Inhibitors and inducers in fermentation processes, causes and effects of foaming, antifoams.

Malini Sundar Rajan
AIR20(GATE Biotech, 2017) DBT-JRF(Category-I fellowship, 2016) AIR19 (GATE Biotech, 2012) AIR10 (CSIR-NET Life Sciences, 2011)

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  1. Media Formulation By Malini Sundar Rajan B.E. Biotechnology (PESIT, Bangalore) M. Tech. Biotechnology (VIT, Vellore) GATE (BT) 2012-AIR 19 GATE(BT) 2017-AIR 20 Freelance Content Writer Unacademy profile: 5- Inhibitors and Inducers, Antifoams

  2. Target Audience . GATE aspirants DBT-JRF-BET CSIR-UGC-NET JNU Other competitive exams . Students from any branch of biosciences and biotechnology and related fields. Anyone wishing to learn bioprocess basics

  3. Overview and Lesson Plan 1. Overview and Introduction 1. What is Media? 2. Why is it used? 3. Types of media 2. Carbon Source 3. Nitrogen Source and Buffers 4. Minerals, Oils and Fats, Growth Factors 5. Inducers and Inhibitors; Antifoams

  4. Inducers Majority of enzymes of commercial interest are inducible, i.e, synthesized only in response to the presence of inducer in the environment. Inducers are often substrates starch/dextrin for amylase production; maltose for pullulanase; pectin for pectinase. Examples (next slide)

  5. Enzyme a-amylase Pullulanase A-Mannosidase Penicillin acylase Proteases Inducer Starch, maltose Maltose Yeast mannans Phenylacetic acid Various proteins Microorganism Aspergillus spp. Bacillus subtilis Aerobacter aerogenes Streptomyces griseus E. coli Bacillus spp. Streptococcus spp Streptomyces spp. Aspergillus spp Mucor Cellulase Cellulose Pectin (beet pulp, apple pomace Aspergillus spp citrus peel) Isovaleronitrile Trichoderma spp Pectinases Nitralase Rhodococcus rhodochrous

  6. Inhibitors Sometimes, alternative routes of metabolism may reduce the yield of the product of interest in fermentation process To overcome this, inhibitors are used. Desired Examples (next slide ) Alternative, undesired product

  7. Inhibitors Product Inhibitor Main effect Acetaldehyde production repressed Chlortetracycline formation repressed Cell wall permeability Oxalic acid repressed Microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glycerol Sodium bisulphite Tetracycline Bromide Streptomyces aureofaciens Micrococcus glutamicus Aspergillus niger Penicillin Alkali metal/phosphate, pH below 2.0 Various inhibitors Glutamic acid Citric acid Valine Various effects with different inhibitors Other rifamycins inhibited Affects one carbon transfer reactiorn Brevibacterium roseum Rifamycin B 7-chloro-6- demethyltetracycline Di-ethyl barbiturate ethionine Nocardia mediterranei Streptomyces aureofaciens

  8. Antifoams Foaming is a problem in most biological processes Causes of foaming: Media components - especially proteins from meals and extracts Product of microbial metabolism Consequences of foaming: Removal of cells from medium leads to lysis of cells - further release of intracellular protein contributes to stabilizing foam. . Antifoams . Surfactants that reduce surface tension in foams and destabilizing protein films by . Hydrophobic bridges between two surfaces Displacement of absorbed protein Rapid spreading on the surface of the film

  9. Effective Antifoams Alcohol . Esters Fatty acids and derivatives - cottonseed oil, soyabean oil, olive oil, castor oil, sunflower oil, cod liver oil . Silicones Sulphonates

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