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3-Nitrogen Sources and Buffers
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Nitrogen Sources - Why use nitrogen sources? Salts, urea, extracts and hydrolysates as nitrogen sources. Buffers-What are buffers? Why use buffers in fermentation? How to choose buffers?

Malini Sundar Rajan
AIR20(GATE Biotech, 2017) DBT-JRF(Category-I fellowship, 2016) AIR19 (GATE Biotech, 2012) AIR10 (CSIR-NET Life Sciences, 2011)

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  1. Media Formulation By Malini Sundar Rajan B.E. Biotechnology (PESIT, Bangalore) M. Tech. Biotechnology (VIT, Vellore) GATE (BT) 2012-AIR 19 GATE(BT) 2017-AIR 20 Freelance Content Writer Unacademy profile: 3- Nitrogen Sources and Buffers

  2. Target Audience . GATE aspirants DBT-JRF-BET CSIR-UGC-NET JNU Other competitive exams . Students from any branch of biosciences and biotechnology and related fields. Anyone wishing to learn bioprocess basics

  3. Overview and Lesson Plan 1. Overview and Introduction 1. What is Media? 2. Why is it used? 3. Types of media 2. Carbon Source 3. Nitrogen Source and Buffers 4. Minerals, Oils and Fats, Growth Factors 5. Inducers and Inhibitors; Antifoams

  4. Why do we need Nitrogen Source? Nitrogen is the next most abundant element in living cells, after Carbon. It is a component of amino acids, proteins, etc. In laboratory media, ammonium or nitrate salts are used as Nitrogen source For industrial processes, a variety of nitrogen sources are used.

  5. Nitrogen Source Salts Ammonium Nitrate Organic Urea Meals Soybean meal Cottonseed meal Rapeseed meal Corn meal Corn Gluten meal Fish meal Cornsteep liquor Comments Mainly laboratory use Mainly laboratory use Not stable on sterilization Frequently used By product of corn wet milling process Rarely used By product of corn starch processing Great variety in composition Laboratory uses Mainly used for pharmaceuticals Often used for livestock Yeast Extract Protein hydrolysate Distillation residues

  6. Buffers (revisit Biochemistry basics) Buffer: aqueous systems that resist changes in pH as acid or base is added Control of pH Choice of buffer depends on Buffering agent Citric acid Acetic acid KH2PO CHES Borate pKa 3.13, 4.76, 6.40 4.8 7.2 9.3 9.24 Useful pH range Desired pH carbonate and phosphate buffers are used to maintain pH in the corresponding buffering regions. Media composition Amino acids, peptides and proteins found in media components may also contribute to buffering capacity. 3.8-5.8 6.2-8.2 8.3-10.3 8.25-10.25 . pH can also be controlled externally by addition of ammonia, sulphuric acid or sodium hydroxide

  7. Next lesson >> Components of Media Carbon source Nitrogen source . Buffer Minerals, Oils and fats, Growth Factors Inducers and inhibitors; Antifoams

  8. Questions? Feedback? Suggestions? Leave a comment! Or, message me on unacademy Liked my course? Upvote the lesson with a thumbs up Share with your friends Malini Sundar Rajan Unacademy profile: