Many people know that India is the birthplace of many human races; the country also possesses the most diversified tribal populations. Under the Indian Constitution’s Schedule 5, the Indian Constitution recognizes tribal communities in India as Scheduled Tribes. Therefore, our Indian President clarifies tribal communities in India as scheduled tribes as per the Indian Constitution’s Article 342.
Therefore, any tribal communities in India or the largest tribal community in India shall be added or removed by law from the tribal communities register. As per the article, there are around 600 scheduled tribes.
Who are Tribes?
A tribe is a historic class division in which individuals are related by societal, cultural, religious, or blood connections and share a set of norms and accents. In addition, a tribe has particular features and attributes that distinguish it as a unique national, socioeconomic, and cultural entity.
Tribal Communities in India – Attributes
Some discernible attributes of tribal communities:
Dwelling in a mountainous or forested environment
Possessing a distinct geographic and cultural area to which they belong
An interconnected social structure based mainly on biological connections
There is no structure between men or groups.
A separate psychological approach to living life
The loss of a powerful, comprehensive, hierarchical team or the absence of one
Kinship is their social bonding tool
Property ownership allotted on a communal basis
Little value placed on wealth creation or active trading
A character with a segmented personality
An absence of difference between forms and content of spirituality
Tribal Communities in India – Challenges
In the past, the involvement of outsiders caused some of the indigenous people’s concerns. The first ones to make adjustments in their secluded living conditions seem to have been Muslim monarchs. They began using the communities for the reasons listed below.
They aimed to utilise the tribal territories’ riches, particularly the vast mineral deposits.
They desired to be kings over the tribal communities in India.
Tribal regions have valuable natural resources, and therefore cultural interaction with tribes is favourable, resulting in the following:
Transportation and communication infrastructures allow strangers to access their community.
Authorities and missionaries are allowed to enter the tribal territory.
Tribal populations are being displaced from their customary habitats due to initiatives such as hydroelectric power plants and others.
Experts such as medicine men, sales assistants, and agents can enter their tribe region.
What is the Purpose of the Tribal Affairs Ministry?
India’s Tribal Affairs Ministry is in charge of the continuous advancement of tribal communities in India. The ministry supplies a far more structured approach to the united cultural development for tribal communities in India.
What is NCST?
In 2003, our Indian Constitution’s 89th Amendment Act created the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes. Two independent commissions are now replacing the tribal communities in India.
NCST (National Commission for Scheduled Tribes)
NCSC (National Commission for Scheduled Castes)
V.C. or Vice-chairperson
Three additional representatives or crew members
Our Indian President appoints these three representatives by order under the seal. These three additional representatives serve for three years from the joining date. After that, the Chairperson gets promoted or becomes the Union Cabinet Minister. Also, the Vice-Chairperson is encouraged to become the State’s Minister. The remaining three get promoted to the Indian Government’s Secretary rank.
These representatives are entirely liable to safeguard the tribal communities in India.
Tribal Communities in India – Categorization
Although the official categorisation of tribal communities in India is dependent on the state, some researchers have categorised it based on skin colour, nationality, and locality for educational purposes.
The retired ASI director B.S. Guha offered a statistical categorization during 1944. He recognised six distinct races.
The Negritos were the first individuals to settle on our Indian peninsula.
After Negritos the Proto-Australoids arrived.
The third people are the Mongoloids. They were people who originated in China and Mongolia. Through the routes in the Northern and Eastern Mountains, they moved to India.
The Mediterraneans arrived in three phases from South-West Asia.
The Western Brachycephaly who arrived next were brief to moderate in social position.
Finally, the Nordics were to arrive from the northwest zone in our country.
Tribal communities in India are dispersed across the country but are divided into groups depending on their geographical location. The largest tribal community in India is Madhya Pradesh. The tribal communities can be classified into four location-based categories:
The northern and northeastern region
Tribal communities found in Andaman & Nicobar
What is TSP?
The Tribal Sub Plan approach is an Indian government’s programme for accelerating the development of tribal communities in India. The resources allocated for the State’s TSP must be proportional to the tribal population in every union territory or state.
India has one of the most diverse tribal communities globally. Many people are aware that India is the homeland of several human races. A tribe is a historical, social class division in which humans are linked by societal, cultural, religious, or family ties and share a set of conventions and customs. The Indian government’s Tribal Sub Plan strategy speeds tribal communities’ progress. Every union territory or state must have resources allocated to the TSP commensurate with the tribal population.