El-Nino refers to a change in the climatic pattern which warms the water present on the surface of the Pacific Ocean but it does affect the climate or the weather conditions in the world. It even causes rain in different parts of South and Central America and the United States. El-Nino is a warm phase and there’s also a cool phase that takes place known as La Nina.
During the phase of El- Nino, lots of clouds that rain form over the ocean because of the warm weather so these clouds go further inland and then they start to rain causing more rainfall in the United States and South and Central part of America. This can also lead to drought in many places on the earth due to sudden climate changes.
Causes of El Nino:
Some of the conditions that cause El Nino are:
- The tropical pacific faces wind moving faces trade winds moving from the west which also moves the warm water from the east to the west surface of the ocean. This creates warm water building on the western side.
- As the warm water is pushed away, so the eastern sides face cold waters on the ocean surface which causes changes in the temperature in the equatorial pacific region.
- The warm water that reached the western area now warms up the air which causes changes in temperature and rains and thunderstorms. So this makes warm air circulate in the west and cool air circulates in the east.
- This leads to the building up of the easterly winds and it causes never-ending air in the pacific region.
Effects of El Nino:
The effects of El-Nino are as follows:
Effects on aquatic species and sea birds:
Fishes stay alive in the ocean because of the nutrients present. During the time of El Nino, it changes the cold water and it takes away the nutrients present at the bottom of the ocean . Because of this the fish either migrate from their place or they die and because of the migration of fishes many creatures live on fish also disease, they do not get food.
Drought and dry conditions:
As El-Nino changes the water temperature so it affects the weather conditions too. Many regions may face dryness and become droughts. Examples of such countries are Australia, the Philippines which face dry conditions, crops yield is poor, and also fires in the forests.
Flooding and impact on local/commercial fishes:
As the El-Nino effect stays over the regions for a long period, this results in heavy rainfall in the area, which causes floods in that region which destroys property and makes many people homeless. Due to floods, fishermen couldn’t go fishing which created an impact on the business of fish over the areas of Peru, Southern America, and Ecuador.
Occurrence of Hurricanes, typhoons, and very cold weather:
The warm air that passes through the pacific also carries hurricanes, typhoons, and cold weather and spreads it in many regions of the world. For example- in 2009, the UK faced extreme winter because of the impact that was made by El Nino, and South Korea and Japan face typhoons because of the warm wind passing through the ocean.
According to the research El- Nino happens at an interval and it does not take place very frequently. Till today, in total 23 El-Nino have taken place but as the research goes further it is said that the occurrence of El-Nino has become faster over the last 50 years. El- Nino brings many changes in the climatic condition all over the world but it creates more destruction in the areas close to the Pacific Ocean. It brings drought, changes in the temperature, and rain in many areas. It does not give a hint of it as it happens randomly.