Naxalism in India is an outcome of the failure of democratic India to win the hearts of the deprived people by sharing development progress which they are badly in need of. People become enraged and resentful due to a lack of human growth. They have a sense of alienation and exclusion. Furthermore, local elites are frequently exploiting, harassing, and even abusing tribal populations. The reasons for their support for the violent movement are several.
- Low levels of employment and qualification persist among these groups, as do new forest policies that restrict their livelihoods, cultural humiliation, limited access to health care, education, and power, restricted and limited access to natural resources, multifaceted forms of exploitation, social atrocities, displacement and inadequate rehabilitation programmes, political marginalisation, and protest suppression.
- The tribal belt in India is one of the most underdeveloped regions of the country. The state fails to deliver them adequate healthcare, sanitation, or education which has strengthened the distrust against the Indian Government.
- The initial struggle was against land ownership and feudal landlords, but the new struggle was against state domination, modernisation and development, increasing inequality in rural India.
Administrative and Judicial System
- Administrative and Judicial delay in dealing with cases. Of these pending cases, the majority are litigation from villagers. The longer the case takes, the more expensive it becomes to get justice.
- Naxalites are running a parallel government, and they have a quick judicial mechanism.
- They settle their disputes instantly based on their rational perspective. Consequently, the poor local people are approaching their naxalite leaders to solve their problems instead of approaching the complicated court or police stations.
The Exploitation of Natural Resources
- Natural resources in the naxal-affected states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh.
- Tribal regions to policymakers are simply mineral-rich areas.
- Mining is encouraged by the Government, but the way the mineral extraction industry operates socially or environmentally does not lead to the prosperity of the local people, but it certainly leads to the prosperity of outsiders.
- Hence mining contributed to the misery of Tribal people. As mining led to the displacement of tribal people, they were devoid of major benefits.
Denial of Land Rights
- The Adivasis, or Indian aborigines, reside in these lushly forested territories that people in business are eager to develop. The struggle between economic advancement and indigenous land rights continues to fuel the actions of the naxalite movement. The land is not only a source of ownership but also identity and strength. Tribal people in the name of development have been displaced from the area without proper rehabilitation facilities.
- Even with the adoption of a large number of laws, land reforms have never been adequately implemented in many Indian states, particularly the states bearing the brunt of naxalism. E.g., Andhra Pradesh Land Reforms (Ceiling and Agricultural Holdings) Act was passed in 1973. But it took nearly ten years to acquire the surplus land from land-owning farmers due to prolonged litigation. Still, in 1995, the non-tribals owned around 7,51,435.66 acres of land in Scheduled Areas of Andhra Pradesh.
- The Government policy for protecting tribals or rehabilitation has never fully benefited the tribal.
- Poor implementation of The Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006 or apathy on part of forest bureaucracy has also denied land rights to them.
Lack of Democratic Decentralisation
- Poor representation of tribal aspiration and needs in the democratic and political space like other communities like SC/OBC. The governance is poor or worse; in certain places, it is non-existent.
- Popular schemes take long to devise but longer to implement. Even while implementing, the benefit always reaches those who are the “naves” and not those in need.
Suspected Role of China
- These insurgents not only were supported by the people from nearby villages but also from the neighbouring country China. Initially, the movement took motivation from China’s founding father, Mao Zedong. The media of China had called this movement the “Spring Thunder”.
- Various reports indicated that Chinese intelligence units have been training, arming and funding the naxalite activities to assist them in waging a violent and seemingly inexorable battle against India.