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Micronutrients- Vitamins Vitamins are organic compounds. They are necessary for the normal functioning of the body, growth and health. Their deficiency leads to serious deficiency disorders. Vitamins needed by the human body are 13 in number: They are as follow . . e . . o Five Vitamins- A, C, D, E, k Eight B vitamins- Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Biotin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12 and Folate o
Source of Vitamins: . Vitamins D and K can be synthesized in the human body. . Vitamin B12 is synthesized by gut bacteria in the colon, however the absorption of this vitamin is less, and therefore should be supplemented in the diet. . The other vitamins need to be taken from dietary sources. Solubility of Vitamins: o Water soluble- All 8 B vitamins and Vitamin C . Fat soluble- Vitamins A, D, E, K.
1.Vitamin A- Retinol Importance: Needed for good low-light and colour vision, reproductive function and healthy development of an embryo, maintaining the immune system, the health of the cells, gene transcription. Provitamin A (provitamins are substances that are later converted to vitamin form in the body) beta-carotene fights the disease-causing free radicals. Sources Fortified dairy products like cheese, yogurt, butter, and cream, egg yolk, leafy vegetables like spinach, brightly coloured vegetables like carrots, meat and fish IS The pro-vitamin beta-carotene is found in vegetables like carrots, broccoli, spinach, and sweet potatoes. .
2. Vitamin C- Ascorbic Acio Importance: . Necessary for wound healing. . Also, it is a powerful antioxidant and helps fight ageing signs. It helps in iron absorption Sources: . Citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage, green vegetables, potato.
3. Vitamin D Importance Human body can synthesize Vitamin D and for that exposure to the sun is required Regulates levels of calcium and phosphorus which are necessary for the healthy bones * * Sources: Milk and dairy products, fortified cereals, fish, cod liver oil. *
4. Vitamin E Importance: Functions as an antioxidant and fights the free radicals that damage cells. Sources: Nuts, wheat germ and wheat germ oil, almond oil, oils like sunflower and sesame oil, dark green leafy vegetables like spinach, mango and papaya.
5. Vitamin K Importance: . Needed for synthesis of proteins that are precursors to blood clotting. Sources: Human body can produce Vitamin K and dietary sources include cabbage, cauliflower, eggs, meat, fish, cereals and green and leafy vegetables. .
7. Vitamin B2- Riboflavin Importance: Needed for function, growth, and development of cells, metabolism of fats, drugs, and steroids. Like all B vitamins, it is involved in the conversion of glucose to energy . . Sources: Milk, cheese, eggs, green leafy vegetables, almonds, mushrooms, legumes, meat. .
9. Vitamin B5- Pantothenic Acid Importance: Needed for energy metabolism. Also, it is needed for the synthesis and metabolism of fats and proteins. Sources: Milk, mushrooms, eggs, lentils, legumes, vegetables belonging to the cabbage family, meat, whole grains. .