STUBBLE BURNING IN INDIA
A ban that's bane In 2015, the NGT was forced to stop the practice of stubble burning after thick smog enveloped the northern skies with the onset of autumn yet again, and acute respiratory problems were reported to be worsening in the national capital. The NGT banned the burning of paddy straw in four States Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. v In its order, the tribunal fixed a penalty for burning paddy residue. The fine for small land owners with less than two acres indulging in crop burning is 2,500. For medium landowners holding land over two acres but less than five acres, it is 5,000. And those with over five acres have to cough up 15,000 for every instance of crop burning. V The NGT also ordered the State governments to take punitive action against persistent offenders. It also directed the four States and Delhi to make arrangements to provide machinery free of cost to farmers with less than two acres,-5,000 to farmers with medium-sized land holdings, and 5,000 to those with large land holdings for residue management Farmers says, if they engage labour to clear the remains of the crop will cost them around 5000 Rs per acre, which they cannot afford. As the State mainly follows a rice-wheat cropping pattern, it contributes 60% to the wheat bowl and 40% to the rice bowl of the central pool. Around 75% of its population depends directly on agriculture
Making way for new crops by blocking oxygen pipes? vDelhi has turned into a gas chamber which will deteriorate the health conditions of the people. Public Health Emergency has been declared. Doctors says, They have never seen such smoke in their life Schools have been shut down. The Supreme Court last month slapped a ban on selling fireworks ahead of Diwali in an attempt to reduce pollution levels. Last year, NASA satellite imagery showed thick plumes of smoke rising across north India and covering Delhi similar to when the agency tracked fires from Indonesia's Sumatra, which regularly drift over and pollute Singapore. v The air quality index measures concentrationsof PM 2.5, PM 10 ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide among other indicators.
Lahore CAPITAL'S NIGHTMARE Stubble burning could contribute anywhere between 12% and 60% to Delhi's air pollution One ton of stubble on burning, releases 2kg of S02 3 kg of particulate matter 60 kg of CO 1460 kg of CO2 199 kg of ash PAKISTAN Himachal Pradesh Punjab Approximate locations of active fires on Now.1 New Delhi Haryana Health Impact Winter crop-burning triggers heavy pollution in Delhi Can agravate andtriger Delhi espiatorydiseases Resultsinloss of solnutrient nd ill ol rgs Dots denote fire incidents on Nasa's mapper INDIA
AQI Category, Pollutants and Health Breakpoints AQI PM Category24-hr 24-hr 24-hr S-hr8hr2hr24-hr 24-hr (Range) PM NO CO sO NH Pb 10 2.5 (mg/m ) Good (0-50) 0-50 0-30 0-40 0-50 01.0 0-40 0-200 0-0.5 Satisfactory 5 1.1-2.0 41-80 201-400 0.5- 1.0 51-100 31-60 41-80 51-100 (51-100) Moderately 101-250 61-90 81-1S0 101-168 2.1-10 81-380 401-800 1.1-2.0 polluted (101-200) Poor251-350 91-120 181- 169-208 10-17 381-800 801- 2.1-3.0 (201-300) Very poor 351 430 121-250 21209 17-3401 12 (301-400) 280 1200 400 748 1600 1300 Serere430 (401-500
Effects of smog Exposure to smog can be severely harmful for the health of the exposed as it can cause/aggravate health conditions such as follows: Chest infections/Irritation: When you inhale ground-level ozone, it can affect your respiratory system in an adverse way, leading to coughing and irritation. When you are exposed to it for longer durations, it carn even lead to lung infections. Worsening of asthma/bronchitis/emphysema: Patients of such respiratory problems have the worst of times when smog hits such high levels. Patients can have frequent and severe asthma attacks. In extreme cases the risk of developing these diseases may also significantly shoot up Cold and eye irritation: Smog significantly reduces one's immunity to cold and can cause irritation in the eyes Premature mortality: A study by RICE university showed that ground-level ozone and PM 2.5 are direct contributors to an increased risk of premature mortality. Damage to crops: Besides impacting humans negatively, smog can also inhibit plant growth and cause
SOLUTION- Financial assistance to farmers by the central and state govt for boosting farm mechanisations because it is dlifficult to stop stubble burning. One of the possible ways to stop stubble burning would be by generating power through biomass energy plants. It will not only solve the problem of stubble burning but also produce electricity for state. A Delhi-based company is working on in-situ decomposition of paddy(Rice) straw, with microbial application and without mechanical effort. This approach will reduce the cost of retaining straw . Swaminathan recommended that this remains of Paddy called straw can be used as fodder for animals. By adding urea and molasses it can be very useful for grazers. Generally, Farmers do not allow shepherds to enter into fields otherwise goats who are aggressive eaters can clean the stubble as well it will help in reducing forest grazing as it thwarts regeneration.
v There are many ways to tackle the problem, but a ban is not one of them V"The State governmentneeds to focus on crop diversification. Instead of paddy [commonrice], basmati varieties of rice should be encouraged. Basmati is manually harvested, so the problem of crop residue can be largely curtailed. Also, farming of sugarcane and vegetables needs to be promoted. Setting up more biomass-based energy plants is an option,". Y "We have taken several measures including providing the Happy Seeder," says Jasbir Singh Bains, director of the Punjab Agriculture Department. "This is a machine developed by the Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) to plant wheat directly into harvested paddy fields without any other major operation, and to promote the use of straw baler and straw management machines for residue management. With machines like Happy Seeder, the straw is partly cut, chopped, and left as mulch. Mulch helps in reducing irrigation requirement and blocks the emergence of weeds. The crop planted with Happy Seeder is less prone to lodging. This is more profitable than conventional cultivation." He adds: However, urgent intervention of the Central government is needed. Unless financial assistance is provided by the Centre for boosting farm mechanisation, it is dlifficult for us to completely stop stubble burning. Bains says farmers in Punjab, especially small and marginal farmers, are already facing severe economic distress. To ask them to remove crop residue mechanically or through environment-friendly measures wil only add to their misery. "We have been providing machinery on subsidy, but even that puts an additional burden of around 3,000 per acre on farmers for paddy straw management," he says
National Green Tribunal National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 (NGT) is an Act of the Parliament of India which enables creation ofa special tribunal to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues. It draws inspiration from the India's constitutional provision of Article 21, which assures the citizens of India the right to a healthy environment. The Tribunal has a mandate to dispose of applications and petitions within a period of six months. India is only the third country in the world - after Australia and New Zealand - to set up such a body to deal with environmental cases. The NGT has issued include the cancellation of clearance to coal blocks in the Hasdeo-Arand forests of Chhattisgarh. In November 2016, the Kolkata bench of NGT banned all solid waste and noise pollution in Sunderbans in a bid to protect the wildlife. It had earlier banned all construction activity in the eco-sensitive region.
AIR QUALITY INDEX National Air Quality Index (AQI) launched by the Environment Minister AQl is a huge initiative under 'Swachh Bhara An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by governmentagencies Il to communicate to the public how polluted the air currently is or how polluted it is forecast to become.l2131 As the AQl increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. Different countries have their own air quality indices, corresponding to different national air quality standards. Some of these are the Air Quality Health Index (Canada), the Air Pollution Index (Malaysia), and the Pollutant Standards Index (Singapore). e Proluteant stondierdi Indes singaorek Canada the There are six AQl categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe. The proposed AQl will consider eight pollutants for which short-term (up to 24-hourly averaging period) National Ambient Air Quality Standards are prescribed.
Graduate in Economics. Gold medal in Dissertation, Prepared various documents on Demonetisation and GST, Share-trading and many more