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Rishab Arora
Graduate in Economics. Gold medal in Dissertation, Prepared various documents on Demonetisation and GST, Share-trading and many more

U
Unacademy user
KF
finally my glycolysis is revised..thanks alot sir😊😊😊😊😊
good job brother, keep it up.
Sonu Sharma
a year ago
all organizations 👇https://unacademy.com/lesson/upsc-international-organization-un-part-2-in-hindi/M81BU2Z3
  1. STUBBLE BURNING IN INDIA


  2. The state of Punjab is known for it's agricultural diversity and it's basically an agarian state. Though relatively small in size but it produces 20% of wheat produced in India and 10% of paddy(Rice) produced overall. There are two growing seasons in Punjab- 1. From May to September (KHARIF) 2. From Novemberto April (RABI) v' In October, farmer harvest rice and sow wheat. After the harvest , they often set their field on fire to clear the remains/residue of crops for next plantings, This is called STUBBLE BURNING. The practice is not only limited to Punjab but it's neighbouring states too like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and other parts of North India follows the same part. Despite the 2015 ban on crop burning, farmers in the state continues to set fire to paddy residue to make way for the next crops. v India produces 140 million tonnes of Paddy and 240 million of rice straws ,M.S Swaminathan said.


  3. Traditionally , farmers use to clear fields on their own or by using primitive tools, v When mechanized harvesting become popular, The practice of stubble burning kicked in, because the combine machine which helps in harvesting the crops in an hour leaves the remains of crops which is approximate 1 feet tall (Also called straw) Farmers set their fields on fire because they there is a short gap between harvesting the crops and to sow the new crops They are basically cost concerned. Farmer's association says if they will engage labour or machine which is difficult to find, for clearing the paddy straw, it will be time consuming. It will delay the sowing of wheat and they will have less yield and it's expensive too. Burning the straws is the quickest and cheapest way to clear the remains and they will make way for their next crop. V India produces 140 million of paddy and 280 million of wheat, M.S Swaminathan said.



  4. A ban that's bane In 2015, the NGT was forced to stop the practice of stubble burning after thick smog enveloped the northern skies with the onset of autumn yet again, and acute respiratory problems were reported to be worsening in the national capital. The NGT banned the burning of paddy straw in four States Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. v In its order, the tribunal fixed a penalty for burning paddy residue. The fine for small land owners with less than two acres indulging in crop burning is 2,500. For medium landowners holding land over two acres but less than five acres, it is 5,000. And those with over five acres have to cough up 15,000 for every instance of crop burning. V The NGT also ordered the State governments to take punitive action against persistent offenders. It also directed the four States and Delhi to make arrangements to provide machinery free of cost to farmers with less than two acres,-5,000 to farmers with medium-sized land holdings, and 5,000 to those with large land holdings for residue management Farmers says, if they engage labour to clear the remains of the crop will cost them around 5000 Rs per acre, which they cannot afford. As the State mainly follows a rice-wheat cropping pattern, it contributes 60% to the wheat bowl and 40% to the rice bowl of the central pool. Around 75% of its population depends directly on agriculture


  5. Making way for new crops by blocking oxygen pipes? vDelhi has turned into a gas chamber which will deteriorate the health conditions of the people. Public Health Emergency has been declared. Doctors says, They have never seen such smoke in their life Schools have been shut down. The Supreme Court last month slapped a ban on selling fireworks ahead of Diwali in an attempt to reduce pollution levels. Last year, NASA satellite imagery showed thick plumes of smoke rising across north India and covering Delhi similar to when the agency tracked fires from Indonesia's Sumatra, which regularly drift over and pollute Singapore. v The air quality index measures concentrationsof PM 2.5, PM 10 ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide among other indicators.


  6. Lahore CAPITAL'S NIGHTMARE Stubble burning could contribute anywhere between 12% and 60% to Delhi's air pollution One ton of stubble on burning, releases 2kg of S02 3 kg of particulate matter 60 kg of CO 1460 kg of CO2 199 kg of ash PAKISTAN Himachal Pradesh Punjab Approximate locations of active fires on Now.1 New Delhi Haryana Health Impact Winter crop-burning triggers heavy pollution in Delhi Can agravate andtriger Delhi espiatorydiseases Resultsinloss of solnutrient nd ill ol rgs Dots denote fire incidents on Nasa's mapper INDIA


  7. AQI Category, Pollutants and Health Breakpoints AQI PM Category24-hr 24-hr 24-hr S-hr8hr2hr24-hr 24-hr (Range) PM NO CO sO NH Pb 10 2.5 (mg/m ) Good (0-50) 0-50 0-30 0-40 0-50 01.0 0-40 0-200 0-0.5 Satisfactory 5 1.1-2.0 41-80 201-400 0.5- 1.0 51-100 31-60 41-80 51-100 (51-100) Moderately 101-250 61-90 81-1S0 101-168 2.1-10 81-380 401-800 1.1-2.0 polluted (101-200) Poor251-350 91-120 181- 169-208 10-17 381-800 801- 2.1-3.0 (201-300) Very poor 351 430 121-250 21209 17-3401 12 (301-400) 280 1200 400 748 1600 1300 Serere430 (401-500


  8. Effects of smog Exposure to smog can be severely harmful for the health of the exposed as it can cause/aggravate health conditions such as follows: Chest infections/Irritation: When you inhale ground-level ozone, it can affect your respiratory system in an adverse way, leading to coughing and irritation. When you are exposed to it for longer durations, it carn even lead to lung infections. Worsening of asthma/bronchitis/emphysema: Patients of such respiratory problems have the worst of times when smog hits such high levels. Patients can have frequent and severe asthma attacks. In extreme cases the risk of developing these diseases may also significantly shoot up Cold and eye irritation: Smog significantly reduces one's immunity to cold and can cause irritation in the eyes Premature mortality: A study by RICE university showed that ground-level ozone and PM 2.5 are direct contributors to an increased risk of premature mortality. Damage to crops: Besides impacting humans negatively, smog can also inhibit plant growth and cause


  9. SOLUTION- Financial assistance to farmers by the central and state govt for boosting farm mechanisations because it is dlifficult to stop stubble burning. One of the possible ways to stop stubble burning would be by generating power through biomass energy plants. It will not only solve the problem of stubble burning but also produce electricity for state. A Delhi-based company is working on in-situ decomposition of paddy(Rice) straw, with microbial application and without mechanical effort. This approach will reduce the cost of retaining straw . Swaminathan recommended that this remains of Paddy called straw can be used as fodder for animals. By adding urea and molasses it can be very useful for grazers. Generally, Farmers do not allow shepherds to enter into fields otherwise goats who are aggressive eaters can clean the stubble as well it will help in reducing forest grazing as it thwarts regeneration.