Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Jainism Lesson- 4 By Dr. Roman Saini
Spread of Jainism in India In order to spread the teachings of Jainism, Mahavira organized an order of his followers which admitted both men and women. . Since, Jainism did not very clearly mark itself out from the brahmanical religion, it failed to attract the masses. However, it gradually spread into south and west India where the brahmanical religion was weak. It is said in some traditions that the spread of Jainism in Karnataka is attributed to Chandragupta Maurya in 4th century B.C.
The emperor Chandragupta Maurya became a Jaina, gave up his throne and spent the last years of his life in Karnataka as a Jain monk. . . The other cause of the spread of Jainism in south India to be the great famine that took place in Magadha two hundred years after the death of Mahavira. The famine lasted for two years and in order to protect themselves many a Jain went to the south under the leadership of "Bhadrabahu". . But the rest of them stayed back in Magadh under the leadership of "Sthalabahu". . At the end of the famine they came back to Magadh, where they developed differences with the local Jainas. .
. Those who came back from the south claimed that even during the famine . On the other hand, they alleged, Jain ascetics living in Magadh had e In order to sort out these and to compile the main teachings of Jainism a e Hoevere, this council was boycotted by the southern jains and they refused . From now onwards, the southerners began to call "digambaras" and the they had strictly observed the religious rules. violated those rules and had become inferior. council was convened in Pataliputra (Patna) to accept its decision. Jains of Magadh "svetambaras".
Jainism spread to Kalinga in Odisha in the fourth century B.C. And in the first century B.C. it enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga king Kharavela. In later centuries, Jainism penetrated Malwa, Gujarat and Rajasthan. . . . And even now, these areas has a good number of Jains who are mainly engaged in trade and commerce. Although, Jainism did not win as much as state patronage as Buddhism did and did not spread very fast in early times. But it still retains its hold in the areas where it spread. That is not true for . Buddhism On the other hand, Buddhism practically disappeared from the Indian subcontinent. .
Contribution of Jainism Jainism made the first serious attempt to mitigate the evils of the varna order and the ritualistic Vedic religion. The early Jains discarded Sanskrit language mainly patronized by the brahmanas. They adopted Prakrit language of the common people to preach their . . doctrines Their religious literature was written in Ardhamagadhi. And the texts were finally compiled in the sixth century A.D. in Gujarat at a place called Valabhi. . .
The Jains composed the earliest important works in Apabhramsha and prepared its first grammer. The jain literature contains epics, puranas, novels, and drama. In early medieval times they also made good use of Sanskrit and wrote many texts in it. . Last but not least, they contributed to the growth of Kannada, in which they wrote extensively. Initially, like the Buddhists, they were not image worshipers. Lately, they began to worship Mahavira and also the twenty-three tirthankaras. Jain art in ancient times is not as rich as Buddhist art, but Jainism contributed substantially to art and architecture in medieval times.
Ceremony of Mahamastakabhisheka The "Shravanabelagola" is one of the most important Jain pilgrimage in the Hassan district of Karnataka in South India. It is a place of great importance from the point of pilgrimage and also archeological and religious heritage. . The place derives its name from the point that Shravana or "Shramana" means a Jain ascetic and Belagola or "Biliya Kola" means white pond. Recently in a nationwide poll, Shravanabelagola was voted as the first of the Seven Wonders of India. .
Mahamastakabhisheka, the head anointing ceremony is performed once in 12 years to the 57 feet high monolithic statue of Lord Bahubali at Shravanabelagola. The monolithic statue of the Lord bahubali is situated on the Vindhyagiri hills. The first ever Mahamastakabhisheka of this sacred statue of Lord Bahubali was performed in 981 A.D. under the guidance of Chamundaraya. Recently, the last event has been held from 17th-25th February 2018
There are various interpretations to perform the ceremony after every 12 years such as o It took almost 12 years to carve the idol of Lord Bahubali at . Shravanabelagola and hence to mark this Mahamastakabhisheka is conducted once in 12 years. Chavundaraya who got the idol of Lord Bahubali at Shravanabelagola had instructed for performing Mahamastakabhisheka once in 12 years. Further, according to Jain scriptures it is seen that 12 is an auspicious number. o o Practically speaking to conduct the mastakabhisheka of an idol of such a huge magnitude it involves a lot of efforts, time and money Hence mastakabhisheka is performed once in 12 years. o
Lord Gomateshwara/Bahubali Bahubali was the son of Rishabhanatha, the first of the 24 Tirthankaras in Jainism. . He is also known as Gommatesh. The Gomateshwara statue is dedicated to him. The north facing stone sculpture of Lord Gomateshwara is depicted in the upright posture of meditation known as "Kayotsarga". That is practiced to attain salvation by practicing renunciation, self-restraint and complete dominance of ego. . .
His Message Lord Bahubali's message is follows to make everyone's life like as a Jain ascetic; 1. Happiness: Through Non Violence 2. Peace: Through Renunciation 3. Progress: Through Amity 4. Perfection: Through Meditation