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Jainism Lesson- 5 By Dr. Roman Saini
Jain Caves: Udayagiri and Khandagiri These caves are situated on two adjacent hills, Udayagiri and Khandagiri, in Odisha, mentioned as Kumari Parvatha in the Hathigumpha inscription. They have a number of finely and ornately carved caves built during 2nd century BCE . It is believed that most of these caves were carved out as residential blocks for Jain monks during the reign of King Kharavela. Udayagiri means "Sunrise Hill" and has 18 caves while Khandagiri has 15 caves Rani Gumpha is the largest and most popular cave among the caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri.
And, Ganesha Gumpha is one of the most important caves in Udayagiri. The cave got this name due to carved figure of Ganesha on the back of its right cell. . . The cave has two big statues of elephants carrying garlands at the entrance. Also, the carved figures of dwara palas are found at the entrances The carvings in this cave narrate the story of the elopement of Bassavadatta, Princess of Ujjayini, with King Udayana of Kausambi in the company of Vasantaka. . Hati Gumpha is a natural cavern. On the wall, the inscription erected by Kharavela is found. . It is the main source of history of King Kharavela of Odisha.
Jainism and Buddhism: Similarities The source of the philosophies of both was the same. As both possessed the background of the Aryan culture and were inspired by the philosophy of the Upanishads, particularly that otf Sankhya-Yoga Both emerged in eastern India which by that time had retained some features of the pre-Aryan culture. Both were the products of intellectual, spiritual and social factors of their age and therefore, both originated as revolts against the prevalent Brahmanical religion. 1. 2. 3.
Both were started by the members of the Kshatriya caste and both appealed to the socially down-trodden, the Vaishvas and Shudras. Since they were not granted social status corresponding to their growing economic power, and the Shudras who were definitely oppressed Both, Mahavira and Buddha, the founders of Jainism and Buddhism respectively were Kshatriya princes. Though both religion did not attack the caste system but they were opposed to it. Therefore, drew large converts from the lower strata of the society, particularly buddhism. 4. 5.
6. Both opposed the ritualism and the sacrifices of Brahmanism and also challenged the supremacy of the Brahmanas and the Vedas as an infallible authority. 7. Both believed that Nirvana or salvation of an individual meant his or her deliverance from the eternal chain of birth and death 8. Both laid great stress upon a pure and moral life rather than practice of ritualism or even devotion to and worship of God as a means to attain salvation. 9. Both emphasized Ahimsa or non-violence as a way of life.
10. Both accepted the doctrines of the transmigration of soul and Karma. They emphasized the effects of good and bad Karmas (deeds) upon an individual's future births. 11. Both accepted the ultimate salvation as the highest goal of everyone's life. 12. Both preached their religion in the common language of the people and discarded Sanskrit as the language of their early religious texts. The early Buddhist-texts were written in Pali and Jaina texts were written in Prakrit. 13. Both encouraged the idea of giving up the world and urged to lead the life of an ascetic and organised orders for monks and nuns.
Jainism and Buddhism: Differences 1. Jainism is a much more ancient religion as compared to Buddhism. According to Jaina traditions it had twenty-four Tirthankaras and Mahavira was the last of them. Hence, Mahavira has been regarded as a reformer of an already existing religion, the Buddha has been regarded the originator of a new religion. The Jaina concept of soul is different from that of Buddhism. Jainism believes that everything in nature, even a small particle, has a soul 2. of its own. Buddhism does not believe so.
The concept of Ahimsa (non-violence) is different in Buddhism as compared to Jainism The Buddhist concept of Ahimsa is more affirmative as compared to that of Jainism Buddhism emphasized love to all beings which is a more positive virtue as compared to the concept of non-injury to all beings of Jainism. Buddhism emphasized elimination of caste distinctions more as compared to Jainism. Jainism advised practice of strict asceticism to attain salvation while Buddhism advised its Upasakas to follow the middle path or Tathagata marg. 3. 4. 5.
to Jainism, women and men householders cannot attain salvation while, according to Buddhism, it is possible for both. 7. In Digambara sect of Jainism, it is necessary for the monks to go naked while Buddhism denounced it. According to Jainism, salvation is possible only after death. While according to Buddhism it is possible during one's own life if one is able 8. to detach oneself completely from the worldly existence. 9. Jainism describes Nirvana as freedom from body But Buddhism describes it as destruction of the self or detachment from worldly existence while having the physical body namely, Bodhisattva.