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Module 10 | Session 3 | Division of Labour
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In this session we go through a passage from the works of the Charles Babbage, the 'Father of the Computer'.

Anupam Mishra is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Anupam Mishra
Batch of 2018 IIM Lucknow || Former Verbal & Quant Faculty || Loves Philosophy || Trekker || Enfield enthusiast || Powerlifter

U
Unacademy user
Ramandeep Kaur
2 months ago
plz explain..
  1. Reading Comprehension For the CAT The Genre Series Module 10 Session 3 Division of Labour" A Course By: Anupam Mishra


  2. Structure & flow of Sessions. Reading the Passage Para-wise Summary Central Idea Word- meanings No specific Questions to be solved (Shall have a separate course for that)


  3. Some Quips about the Passage O Passage part of On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures O Was a Mathematician, Philosopher, Inventor, Mechanical Engineer and Polymath. Coined the concept of Digital Programmable Computer, and recognized by many as a "Father of the Compute Developed first ever Mechanical Computer. O 0 O O "The science of calculation becomes continually more necessary at each step of our progress, and must ultimately govern the whole of the applications of science to the arts of life." Author: Charles Babbage


  4. The Passage (part 1) Perhaps the most important principle on which the economy of a manufacture depends, is the division of labour amongst the persons who perform the work. The first application of this principle must have been made in a very early stage of society, for it must soon have been apparent, that a larger number of comforts and conveniences could be acquired by each individual, if one man restricted his occupation to the art of making bows, another to that of building houses, a third boats, and so on. This division of labour into trades was not, however, the result of an opinion that the general riches of the community would be increased by such an arrangement; but it must have arisen from the circumstance of each individual so employed discovering that he himself could thus make a greater profit of his labour than by pursuing more varied occupations. It is my intention, to state shortly various principles on which the advantages of this system of division of labour depend.


  5. The Passage (part 2) Of the time required for learning. It will readily be admitted, that the portion of time occupied in the acquisition of any art will depend on the difficulty of its execution; and that the greater the number of distinct processes, the longer will be the time which the apprentice must employ in acquiring it. Five or seven years have been adopted, in a great many trades, as the time c nsidered requisite for a lad to acquire a sufficient knowledge of his art, and to enable him to repay by his labour, during the latter portion of his time, the expense incurred by his master at its commencement. If, however, instead of learning all the different processes for making a needle, for instance, his attention be confined to one operation, the portion of time consumed unprofitably at the commencement of his apprenticeship will be small, and all the rest of it will be beneficial to his master


  6. The Passage (part 3) Of waste of materials in learning. A certain quantity of material will, in all cases, be consumed unprofitably, or spoiled by every person who learns an art; and as he applies himself to each new process, he will waste some of the raw materials. But if each man commit this waste in acquiring successively every process, the quantity of waste will be much greater than if each person confine his attention to one process. Therefore, the division of labour will diminish the price of production. Skill acquired by frequent repetition of the same processes. The constant repetition of the same process necessarily produces in the workman a degree of excellence and rapidity in his particular department, which is never possessed by a person who is obliged to execute many different processes.


  7. Para-Summaries Paragraph 1 O Author states 'Division of labour' as the most important principle that must've been realized quite early by us.Though the rationale for opting it not being the increase in riches of the society but of the individual. States that he'll expound on the pros of this principle. Paragraph 2 O Taking an example he explains how focus on less no. of distinct processes in any art or trade will help to reduce the time that an apprentice takes to become productive. Example taken is that of a needle-maker


  8. Para-Summaries Paragraph 3 O Secondly, he talks about the waste of material that entails a learning process how that waste can be minimized if instead of every individual catering to every process every person caters to just one. Paragraph 4 O Third advantage that he mentions is that of the skill that will be acquired due to repetition. This will be better achieved only if one person caters to a single process instead of several.


  9. Central Idea of Passage P1: Author states 'Division of labour' as the most important principle that must've been realized quite early by us.Though the rationale for opting it not being the increase in riches of the society but of the individual P2: Taking an example he explains h w focus less no. of distinct processes in any art or trade will help to reduce the time that an apprentice takes to become productive. P3: Secondly, he talks about the waste of material that entails a learning process & how that waste can be minimized if instead of every individual catering to every process every person caters to just one. P4: Third advantage that he mentions is that of the skill that will be acquired due to repetition The passage has a very straightforward & clear structure, wherein the author starts with explaining what division of labour is & then goes on to explain 3 of its fundamental advantages.


  10. Word-meanings Contextual) O Apparent O Apprentice O Commencement Clearly understood, Evident A trainee, one who trains under a master Start, Beginning