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Meaning of Locomotion And Movement (in Hindi)
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Dr Praveen Kumar Agrawal is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Dr Praveen Kumar Agrawal
Ex - Faculty, Allen Kota, 22 Yrs Experience. Author - 17 books Known for best explanation Youtube : Concept Gurukul

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  1. Course: Locomotion and Movement -2 Lesson -2: Meaning of locomotion and movement DR. P. K. AGRAWAL M.Sc, PH.D., CSIR NET (JRF), SRF, GATE, FIAZ 20 Years of Pre-medical teaching experience Ex- Faculty, Allen Career Institute, Kota Watch my Live Classes on Unacademy Plus


  2. Locomotion and Movement . Highest degree of movement is seen in animals, which can change the plane of orientation of their appendages or limbs at will Various types of movements in animals include, peristalsis, pumping action of heart, flow of blood, movement of eye ball, jaws, pinna (in some animals), tongue etc. Animals also have an ability to change their place for various purposes. This is called locomotion. They can move from one place to another by their own efforts an exhibit activities like include running, flying, swimming, jumping, crawling, somersaulting etc


  3. .Change of place is referred to as locomotion, whereas the change in posture, shape and size of an organ (without changing the place) is called movement. . However it is difficult to separate movement from locomotion. In animals, locomotion is intimately related to movement . Any change of place involves movement of cytoplasm, cells, tissues and organs. Animals are required to move from one place to another for getting food and other things


  4. 1. Basic types of movements Various types of movements in animals can be divided into three basic categories These are (1) Amoeboid movement, (2) Ciliary movement and (3) Muscular movement. 1. Amoeboid movement Amoeboid movement is the characteristic feature of Amoeba. It is characterized by the formation of pseudopodia like processes by the cell and regular change in the cell shape and streaming cytoplasmic movement (according to requirement)


  5. . This type of movement is brought about by the changes in the cytoplasm composition and viscosity. Various cytoskeletal elements, like microfilaments are also involved in this type of movement - Amoeboid movement helps in food capture (phagocytosis) and change of place as well . In man this type of movement is characteristically shown by WBCs (leukocytes). WBCs exhibit such movement for engulfing the antigens (foreign particles and bacteria) and migration in the circulatory fluid Contractile Ectoplam Endoplasm vacuole NH3 Food vacuole Nucleus Pseudopodia


  6. 2. Ciliary movement . Ciliary movement is the characteristic feature of organisms, which possess cilia or flagella. (Note cilia and flagella have essentially the same structure except the flagella are longer than cilia). Ciliated protozoans like Paramecium use their cilia to move in water In these organisms cilia is also use to drive food in their body (through cytopharynx). . Flagella is used by animals like Euglena, Trypanosoma for their movement. Flagella of choanocyte cells maintain the flow of water, through sponge body. In higher organisms, cilia are not present over the entire body surface. Instead they are restricted to certain organs, especially those organs which deal with the movement of fluids through them. For example In molluscs (bivalvia), the cilia set up water currents that pass over the gills and help in breathing. . In man, many organs have ciliated cells. The epithelial linings of trachea, fallopian tubes, vasa efferentia, nephronic tubules etc., are all ciliated. The ciliary beating helps to maintain the flow of substances.


  7. 3. Muscular movement It is the characteristic of higher organisms only. Almost all vertebrates and many invertebrates of higher category execute their movements by this mechanism. This type of movement is brought about by the activity of specialised contractile tissues, called muscles. . Muscles associated with internal organs of the body help in their movement such as peristalsis (rhythmic movement of alimentary canal), heart beating, movements of ribs etc. Muscles associated with limbs, help both in movements (change in body posture) and in locomotion (changing place)


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