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Nutrient Required by Human Body
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The human body requires essential nutrients for proper functioning. These nutrients are 1. * These nutrients are: Macronutrients- that are required in larger quantities in the human body. They are: Carbohydrates, Fats (Lipids) and Protein Micronutrients- That are required in very less amount in the body. They are: Vitamins and Mineral Other essential nutrients- Water 2. 3.
Process of Nutrition Uptake . Ingestion- Taking in the food Digestion- Breaking of complex molecules present in food to simpler molecules. . Absorption- The digested molecules pass through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream. . Assimilation- The body cells take in the digested molecules and elements which are then used for growth and repair function. . Egestion- The undigested food passes out of the body
Macronutrients- Carbohydrates Main forms of carbohydrates that are consumed as follow: Starch which humans consume the most and is found in all grains, vegetables, pulses. Potato is a starch rich tuberous vegetable. Sugars which are present in fruits and vegetables in form of glucose, fructose and sucrose. Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Cellulose which is a polysaccharide which is present in the structural elements of plants. . .
Importance of Cellulose: Humans do not have requisite enzymes for digesting cellulose. . Cellulose still is very important as it provides roughage or dietary fibre. . Roughage provides bulk to our food. . The bulk helps in the movement of food through the digestive system. . It traps water in the large intestine and helps in its absorption.
Macronutrients- Lipids Lipids are hydrophobic non-polar organic compounds that are insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents Triglycerides (fats and oils), cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters are the dietary lipids. Lipids are divided based on the number of double bonds present in the fatty acid into following types . . i. Saturated fats ii. Monounsaturated fats ii. Polyunsaturated fats
Essential Fatty Acids: Essential fatty acids are alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. . Human diet should be rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in saturated fatty acids as saturated fatty acids are linked to atherosclerosis and cardiac disorders Source of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids - plant oils, fish oil etc. . Certain polyunsaturated fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and hence are needed through external sources, otherwise essential fatty acid deficiency arises .
Macronutrients- Proteins They are important structural and functional components. In cases of energy deprivation proteins can also be broken down as a source of energy They have a calorific value similar to carbohydrates, i.e. 4 Kcal Ig, but their metabolism is much less efficient than that of carbohydrates. Muscles, bones, cartilages, blood vessels, connective tissues, skin, hair, nails etc. are mainly composed of proteins. For example, keratin which is the structural component of hair, collagen and elastin which provide elasticity to the skin . . . .
Building blocks of Proteins: Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 amino acids required in the human body 11 can be synthesized in the body, the other 9 need to be taken from the diet. These 9 amino acids are called essential amino acids. Sources of Proteins: Proteins from animal sources like chicken, organ meat have high biological value. Proteins from plant sources have low biological value. Egg protein is taken as a reference protein due to excellent bioavailability and near completeness in terms of providing the 9 essential amino acids.