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Important Conventions: Part 4
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Contents: Paris agreement 2016, convention on biological diversity,categena protocol,Nagoya protocol,UN convention on desertification,Rotterdam convention, Stockholm convention on POPs,UN conference on sustainable development,2002 and 2012

Suhasini S
With an experience of year and half in corporate office and fire in my belly, I started to find ways to make an impact. Teaching has become

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Mam this course is really helpful .. and mam pls change the font type bcz i feel letters are not clear.. thank u
  1. About me B. tech- SR.M University 1 year of teaching experience 1.5 years of corporate experience Love to teach,play guitar UPSC Aspirant https://unacademy.com/user/hasini.8201 Please rate, review and share the course


  2. Paris agreement, 2016 Paris climate agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020 As of February 2018, 195 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, and 175 have become party to it The Agreement aims to respond to the global climate change threat by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industriallevels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius The implementation of the agreement by all member countries together will be evaluated every 5 years, with the first evaluation in 2023


  3. Paris agreement has a bottom up approach structure in contrast to other international environment law treaties which are top down, characterized by standards and targets set internationally, for states to implement The intended nationally determined contributions pledged during the 2015 conference serve-as the initial nationally determined contribution Unlike the Kyoto protocol, which sets commitment targets that have legal force, the Paris agreement, with its emphasis on consensus building, allows for voluntary and nationally determined targets


  4. Convention on Biological diversity,1992 Multilateral treaty The Convention has three main goals including: the conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity); the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources its objective is to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity It is often seen as the key document regarding sustainable development The convention came into force in 1993. Many biodiversity issues are addressed including habitat preservation, intellectual property rights, biosafety and indigenous people's rights


  5. The Cartagena protocol on biosafety to CBD an international agreement on biosafety as a supplement to the Convention on Biological Diversity effective since 2003 The Biosafety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by genetically modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology The Biosafety Protocol makes clear that products from new technologies must be based on the precautionary principle and allow developing nations to balance public health against economic benefits. It will for example let countries ban imports of genetically modified organisms if they feel there is not enough scientific evidence that the product is safe E.g genetically altered commodities such as corn or cotton.


  6. Nagoya protocol on access and benefit sharing supplementary agreement to the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Its aim is the implementation of one of the three objectives of the CBD: the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity adopted on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan


  7. UN Convention on desertification, 1994: .It is the only internationally legally binding framework set up to address the problem of .The convention aims at tackling desertification through national, regional and sub regional adoptedin Paris, France on 17 June 1994 and entered into force in December 1996 desertification action programmes. India hosts the network on agro forestry and soil conservation The Convention is based on the principles of participation, partnership and decentralization-the backbone of Good Governance and Sustainable Development e It has 197 parties, making it near universal in reach Currently, all member states of the UN plus the Cook Islands, Niue, and the State of Palestine have ratified the convention The convention does not apply to Aruba, the Caribbean Netherlands, Cura ao and Sint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands), or to Gibraltar, Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey(United Kingdom) e


  8. On 28 March 2013, Canada became the first country to withdraw from the convention. Canada reversed its withdrawal by re-acceding to the convention on 21 December 2016, which resulted in Canada becoming party to the convention again on 21 March 2017 2006 was declared "international year of deserts and desertification" . WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (2002) took place in Johannesburg, South Africa AKA Rio +10 (10 years after the first Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro) Reviewed progress in the implementation of agenda 21since its adoption in 1992 Main outcome :Johannesburg declaration


  9. Rotterdam convention, 1998 a multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals The convention promotes open exchange of information and calls on exporters of hazardous chemicals to use proper labeling, include directions on safe handling, and inform purchasers of any known restrictions or bans Signatory nations can decide whether to allow or ban the importation of chemicals listed in the treaty, and exporting countries are obliged to make sure that producers within their jurisdiction comply


  10. Stockholm convention on POPs, 2004 international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Kev elements of the Convention include the requirement that developed countries provide new and additional financial resources and measures to eliminate production and use of intentionally produced POPs, eliminate unintentionally produced POPs where feasible, and manage and dispose of POPs wastes in an environmentally sound manner. Precaution is exercised throughout the Stockholm Convention, with specific references in the preamble, the objective, and the provision on identifying new POPs e .