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Important Conventions: Part 3
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Contents:world commission on environment and development,Basel convention,earth summit,Rio declaration,agenda 21,UNFCCC,Kyoto protocol

Suhasini S
With an experience of year and half in corporate office and fire in my belly, I started to find ways to make an impact. Teaching has become

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Unacademy user
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Ans 1 -> cash to GDP in 214 was 12.42% (compared to 9.5% in China & 4% in Brazil); digitalliteracy - PMGISHA ( Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan), 32 lakh ATM cards compromised recently, AADHAR Pay, BHIM App etc
  1. About me B. tech- SR.M University 1 year of teaching experience 1.5 years of corporate experience Love to teach,play guitar UPSC Aspirant https://unacademy.com/user/hasini.8201 Please rate, review and share the course


  2. World commission on Environment and Development 1987 Started by UN general Assembly in 1983 and based on a 4 year study entitled :our common future", aka the Brundtland report in 1987 was put out It developed the theme of sustainable development It was the first time sustainable development was officially defined This commission is also called as Brundtland commission


  3. Basel convention on trans-boundary movement of hazardous waste, 1989 an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs) It does not, however, address the movement of radioactive waste. The Convention is also intended to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation, and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate e As of February 2018, 185 states and the European Union are parties to the Convention Haiti and the United States have signed the Convention but not ratified it


  4. India ratified the convention and enacted Hazardous wastes managementrules act 1989 encompasses some of the Basel provisions related to the notification ofimport and exportof hazardous wastes, illegal traffic and liability . UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (EARTH SuMMIT,1992): Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit, was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992 It discussed global and environmental problems very widely An important achievement of the summit was an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement Anotheragreement was to "not to carry out any activities on the lands of indigenous peoples that would cause environmental degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate


  5. The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature at the Earth Summit, and made a start towards redefinition of measures that did not inherently encourage destruction of natural eco-regions and so-called uneconomic growth The formal process of UNCED culminated in the adoption of 5 documents, namely: Rio declaration- a statement of broad principles to guide national conduct on environmental protection and development 2. Agenda 21- a massive document containing a detailed action plan fro sustainable development 3. Legally non binding principles of forestry 4 Convention on climate change 5. Convention on bio diversity


  6. Rio declaration: Rio declaration was adopted in the conference recognizing the universal and integral nature of earth and by establishing a global partnership among states and enlisting general rights and obligations on environmental protection The Rio Declaration consisted of 27 principles intended to guide countries in e * future sustainable development. It was signed by over 170 countries Rio principles placed human beings at the centre of sustainable development concerns by stating that humans are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature The gist of these principles is healthy and happy life to all people in the world o e To achieve the sustainable development, states shall reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, exchange of scientific and technological knowledge compensation ofadverse effects of environmental damage caused by activities with in their urisdiction and precautionary approach shall be widely applied by states ; polluter should ear the cost of pollution


  7. Agenda 21 Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992 It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels The "21" in Agenda 21 refers to the 21st Century The agenda emphasizes on issues like poverty, health consumption patterns, natural resource use, financial resources, human settlements It also includes energy, climate and other wide range of issues concerning environment e and development


  8. UN framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC),1992 objective is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenicinterference with the climate system" The framework sets non binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms Instead, the framework outlines how specific international treaties (called "protocols" or "Agreements") may be negotiated to specify further action towards the objective of the UNFCCC .The convention embraced the principle of commonbut differentiated responsibilities which has guided the adoption of a regulatory structure India signed the agreement in June 1992 which was ratified in November 1993.as per the convention, the reduction/limitation requirements apply only to developed countries. The only reporting obligationfor developing countries relates to the construction ofa GHG inventorv Kyoto protocol, Paris agreement are part of UNFCCC


  9. Kyoto protocol, 1997 commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likelythat human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiatedresponsibilities: it puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere Protocol's first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. A second commitment period was agreed on in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, in which 37 countries have binding targets: Australia, the European Union (and its 28 member states), Belarus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Ukraine e


  10. In order to meet the objectives of the protocol, the parties are required to prepare policies and measures for the reduction of greenhouse gases in their responsive countries In addition, they are required to increase the absorption of these gases and utilize mechanisms available, such as e oint implementation Clean development mechanism Emission trading, in order to be rewarded with credits that would allow more greenhouse gas emissions at home