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Important Conventions: Part 2
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Contents:CITES,Bonn convention,world conservation strategy,world charter for nature, Nairobi declaration, Vienna convention,Montreal protocol, amendment to Montreal protocol,2017.

Suhasini S
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  1. About me B. tech- SR.M University 1 year of teaching experience 1.5 years of corporate experience Love to teach,play guitar UPSC Aspirant https://unacademy.com/user/hasini.8201 Please rate, review and share the course


  2. Convention on International Trade in Endangered species of wild flora and fauna 1973 (CITES) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) entered into force on 1 July 1975 Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants The convention does not seek to directly protect endangered species, rather it seeks to reduce the economic incentive to poach endangered species and destroy their habitat by closing off the international market India became a party to it in 1976


  3. Convention on migratory species (BONN convention) aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range It is an international treaty, concluded under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, concerned with the conservation of wildlife and habitats on a global scale only global and UN-based intergovernmental organization established exclusivelv for the conservation and management of terrestrial, aquatic and avian migratory species throughout their range Convention facilitates the adoption of strict protection measures for endangered migratory species Has 2 appendixes: appendix 1- lists migratory species that are classified as endangered and where urgent international cooperation necessary to address the issue Appendix 2- lists other species that require or would benefit significantly from international agreements under the convention


  4. Marine turtles, Siberian crane and Dugongare a part of the conservation under this convention (related to India) WORLD CONSERVATION STRATEGY, 1980: Launchedin 35 countries in 1980 It set out fundamental principles and objectives for conservation worldwide, andidentified priorities for national and international action three main obiectives of the WCS are: (1) to maintain essential ecological processes and life-supportsystems on which human survival and developmentdepend. E.g:soil regeneration and protection, the recycling olf nutrients, and protection of water quality (2) to preserve genetic diversity on which the functioning ofmany of the life-support systems depend, the breeding programs necessary for the protection and improvement of cultivated plants, domesticatedanimals, and microorganisms (3) to ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems which support millions of rural communities as well as major industries


  5. It is considered one of the most influential documents in 20h century nature conservation and one of the first official documents to introduce the concept of sustainable development WORLD CHARTER FOR NATURE, 1982: World charter for nature was adopted by UN member nation-states in 1982 It has 5 principles of conservation by which all human conduct affecting nature is to be guided and judged 1. nature shall be respected and its essential processes shall not be impaired 2. the genetic viability on the earth shall not be compromised, the population levels of all life forms , wild and domesticated, must be at least sufficient for their survival and to this end, necessary habitats shall be protected


  6. 3. All areas of the earth, both land and sea, shall be subject to these principles of conservation; special protection shall be given to unique areas 4. ecosystems and organisms, as well as land, marine and atmospheric resources that are utilized by man, shall be managed to achieve and maintain optimum sustainable productivity 5. nature shall be secured against degradation caused by warfare or other hostile activities


  7. Nairobi declaration: dopted at Nairobi for celebrating the 10th anniversary of the Stockholm conference on human environment 1972 The declaration envisaged the creation of a special commission to frame long term environment strategies for achieving sustainable developments up to the year 2000 and beyond NAIROBI CONVENTION: The Nairobi Convention is a partnership between governments, civil society and the private sector, working towards a prosperous Western Indian Ocean Region with healthy rivers, it enables the Contracting Parties to harness resources and expertise from a wide range of stakeholders and interest groups; and in this way it helps solve inter-linked problems of the region's coastal and marine environment. coasts and oceans


  8. Vienna convention for protection of ozone layer: 1985 Multilateral Environmental Agreement, adopted in 1985 by conference of the Vienna convention for the protection of Ozone layer e The starting point of the global cooperation for protection of ozone layer However, it does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs, the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion.These are laid out in the accompanying Montreal Protocol


  9. Montreal Protocol: Came into force in 1989; has undergone eight revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok),1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), 1998 (Australia), 1999 (Beijing) and 2016 (Kigali, adopted, but not in force) Set targets for reducing the consumption and production of a range of ozone depleting substances The provisions of the Protocol include the requirement that the Parties to the Protocol base their future decisions on the current scientific, environmental, technical, and economic information that is assessed through panels drawn from the worldwide expert communities The agreement acknowledges that certain countries have contributed to ozone depletion than others


  10. It also recognizes that a nation's obligation to reduce current emissions should reflect its technological and financial ability to do so. Because of this, the agreement sets more stringent standards and accelerated phase-out timetables to countries that have contributed most to the ozone depletion India has accepted this protocol with its London amendment in 1992 Ministry of Environment and forest has established an ozone cell and a steering committee on the protocol to facilitate implementation and phasing out ozone depleting substances production by 2010