Biological classification part- 5 By Khushboo Gupta
This course will be helpful for- For all pre-medical examination NEET JIPMER AlIMS and all state level exams. Useful for students of class 11th and 12th CBSE and RBSE And also for all biological Olympiads.
About myself- 2nd year Medical student. At Dr.S. N medical college, Jodhpur. 3rd topper of GPC RUHS Please follow review recommend enroll And not to forget to give upvote to my course !!! All the best !!! yo o o
Kingdom fungi Habit and habitat Heterotrophic And absorb soluble organic matter from dead substrates hence they are called saprophytes Those that depends upon living plants and animals are called as parasites. They can also lives as symbionts in association with algae as lichens and roots of higher plants as mycorrhiza. Structure Exceptions of yeast which are unicellular, fungi are filamentous. Bodies consists of long, slender, thread like structure called hyphae. The network of hyphae is k/as mycelium. Some hyphae are continous tubes filled with multinucleated cytoplasm these are called Coenocytic hyphae. Cell wall made up of chitin and polysaccharide
Reproduction in fungi Vegetative reproduction- through fragmentation, fission and budding. Asexual reproduction- through oospores, ascospores and basidiospores or zoospores Sexual reproduction-by oospores, ascospores and basidiospores through structures called fruiting bodies. Sexual cycle includes 3 steps- Plasmogamy: Fusion of protoplasm b/w two motile or non -motile gametes called plasmogamy Karyogamy- fusion of two nuclei is called karyogamy Meiosis in zygote resulting in haploid spores- when a fungus reproduce sexually, two haploid hyphae of compatible mating types come together and fuse. in some fungi the fusion of haploid cells immediately results in diploid cells. (2n) Other fungi like ascomycetes and basidiomycetes,an intervening dikaryotic stage (n+n) two nuclei per cell, such conditions called dikaryon and the phase called dikaryon phase. Later parental nuclei fuse and cell become diploid.the fungi form fruitingbodies in which reduction division occur leading to formation of haploid spores.
Classification of Kingdom fungi Kingdom Fungi Sexual Reproduction not known Sexual Reproduction known Mycelium Aseptate Phycomycota (lower or algal fungi) Mycelium Septate Eumycota Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycota (Higher fungi) Oomycetes Zygomycetes Oogamous fungi)Conjugation Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes fungi) (Sac Fungi) Club Fungi)
Phycomycetes Division of Kingdom fungi Morphology of mycelium, mode of spores formation and fruiting bodies. Habit and habitat: aquatic habitat and on decaying wood in moist and damp places or as obligate parasites on plants. Mycelium: aseptate and Coenocytic Reproduction: asexual reproduction by zoospores (motile) or by aplanospores (Non-motile). Spores are endogenous produced in sporangium.zoospores are by fusion of two gamets. Gametes are similar in morphology isogamous) or dissimilar ansiogamous our oogamous) Ex mucor, rhizopus and albugo.
Ascomycetes Also k/as sac fungi Habit and habitat Saprophytic, decomposers, parasitic or coprophilus (growing on dung) Mycelium: branched and septate. Reproduction: Asexual spores are conidia produced by exogenous on the mycelium called conidiophores. Conidia on germination produces mycelium. Sexual spores are called ascospores which produces endogenously in sac like asci These asci are arranged in different types of fruiting bodies called ascospores. Ex aspergillus, claviceps, neurospora Neurospora is used extensively in biochemical and genetics work.
Basidiomycetes Club fungi Advanced gungi and best decomposers of wood. Mycelium - branched and septate Primary mycelium is haploid with monokaryotic Cells. And secondary mycelium is long lived and dikaryotic. it is produced by fusion of b/w 2 monokaryotic cell Dikaryophase multiply by spores like uredospores, aecidiospores, and teeutospores Karyogamy and meiosis occur in club shaped basidia. It produces 4 exogenous meiospores or basidiospores. Basidia may develop on fructifications called basidiocarps. Ex- agaricus (mushroom), ustiago( smut), puccinia( rust fungus)
Deuteromycetes Habit and habitat- Saprophytes or parasites Decomposers of litter and help in mineral cycling. Ex alternaria.colletotrichum and trichoderma Mycelium- branched and septate Reproduction Reproduces only by asexual spores k/as conidia. Commonly known as imperfect fungi bcoz only asexual phase is known.
Clearing concepts and doubts is what I do!!!📍 Enjoy learning!!!🎀 ❌Impossible ➡️work hard with smartness➡️possible✔️ 3rd year Medical student