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What is nutrition: The sustenance of life by an organism requires nutrition. * Nutrition is provided by nutrients which function as energy providers, important structural components or important functional molecules and elements . Nutrition in animals comprises- a requirement of nutrients, the mode of intake of food and its utilization in the body. .
Modes of Nutrition: Two major modes of nutrition are: 1. Autotrophic Mode: Autotrophs are self-nourishing individuals i.e. they manufacture their own food. a. b. In ecological terms, they are the also called producers in a food chain. 2. Heterotrophic Mode: a. Organisms cannot manufacture their own food and depend on other organisms for food.
Mode of Nutrition- Autotrophic Autotrophic modes of nutrition are as o Photosynthetic and o Chemosynthetic Photoautotrophs: Photosynthetic organisms perform photosynthesis i.e. they synthesize their food in the presence of light with the help of photosynthetic pigments. Plants and Algae fall under the category of photoautotrophs.
Chemoautotrophs: . Chemoautotrophs are the organisms that synthesize organic compounds for . Most of the chemoautotrophs on the Earth oxidise hydrogen sulphide, sulphur . The other compounds are nitrogen and iron. their energy requirement from inorganic chemical compounds. compounds or methane for energy . The ability of the chemoautotrophs to manufacture their food from chemicals enables them to survive in harsh environments Examples are the bacteria found in hot water springs and near hydrothermal vents in deep ocean waters.
Major examples of chemoautotrophs: Sulphur oxidising bacteria which are found in hot sulphur springs and hydrothermal vents in deep oceans like- Thermococcus bacteria. Iron-oxidising bacteria that oxidise ferrous ion dissolved in water. Examples- Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria that fix or convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogenous compounds. These bacteria are either free-living or found in a symbiotic relationship in plants e.g. root nodules in legumes. Examples: Non-symbiotic Cyanobacteria like- Anabaena and Nostoc, Genus-Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, and Clostridium. . .
Modes of Nutrition- Heterotrophic The heterotrophic modes of nutrition are: . Holozoic . Saprophytic . Parasitic Holozoic Nutrition: The organisms take in solid or liquid food which consists of a complex compounds which are then broken into simpler compounds to provide energy and assist in the maintenance and repair of the body. Human nutrition is holozoic .
Saprophytic Nutrition: The saprophytic organisms feed on the dead and decaying matter. . Fungi are largely considered saprophytic Parasitic Nutrition: Parasites derive nutrition directly from another organism called a host. This generally happens at the expense of the host. . . Parasites are found in both plants (e.g. Cuscuta i.e. Amar bel in Hindi) is a parasitic plant) and animals. Parasites that live inside humans at the expense of human health and well-being.