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# CODED SYLLOGISM AND ITS EXAMPLES

Syllogism is an interactive mind exercise where the neurons learn to make new connections for the same piece of information to first understand the sense of the information and then draw logical inferences from the same.

Syllogism is a kind of deductive reasoning where one has to arrive at a specific conclusion based on the given data. This is a common exercise usually seen as a part of any entrance/competitive/analytical exams where a type or the other of syllogism is provided as a method to test the logical ability of the candidate. As long as the premises/information in the syllogism are true and the question is correctly structured, the conclusion will be true. Syllogism was first described by Aristotle in Prior Analytics and has been studied throughout history to infer and decipher important information from the data.

As we go forward, let’s once have a little in-depth look at some well-known examples of syllogism in English Literature.

Timon Of Athens by Shakespeare

Timon of Athens is a less popular work by Shakespeare wherein one of the characters, Flavius, asks Timon if he has forgotten him. Timon responded as:

Flavius- Have you forgotten me, sir?

Timon- Why dost ask about that? I have forgotten all men; then, if thou grant’st thou’rt a man, I have forgotten thee.

So the structure of Timon’s syllogism is:

All men are men that Timon has forgotten.

Flavius is a man.

Therefore, Flavius is a man that Timon has forgotten.

## CODED SYLLOGISM

Here, both statements and conclusions are represented in coded versions. In order to find the answer, one needs to decode both the statement and the conclusion.

### EXAMPLES OF CODED SYLLOGISM

Which of the following conclusions can be drawn based on the following information.

Statement–

Some autos are scooters.

All scooters are cycles.

Conclusion–

1. Some autos are cycles
2. No scooter is auto.
1. Both I and II follow.
2. Only I follow.
3. Either I or II follows.
4. Only II follows.

Solution–

Answer– option 2- Only I follow.

The Venn diagram possible is:

Source credits: testbook.com

Based on this Venn diagram, the conclusions that can be drawn are

1. Some autos are cycles- true
2. No scooter is an auto- false.

Thus only I follow.

### EXERCISE

Question.1. Below are certain statements given. Assume that the statements hold 100 percent true, even if they deviate from the commonly known facts. Based on what the statement says, draw conclusions from the data and choose the correct option.

Statement–

1. All red are blue.
2. No black is red.

Conclusion–

1. No blue is black.
2. Some black are not blue.
3. Some blue are not black.
1. Only conclusion c follows.
2. Both a or b follows
3. Both a and c follow
4. Only conclusion b follow

Solution:

Option 1: Only conclusion c follows.

The possible Venn diagram is:

Source credits: testbook.com

Based on the Venn diagram

1. No blue is black, false, since there is no definite relationship given between them, so it may or may not be true.
2.  Some blacks are not blue, false again, this may be a possibility, but no definite relationship is given.
3. Some blues are not black, true, and some blues are red, but not all blues are inside the circle named black. So some blues are definitely not black, based on the given information.

Question 2:

Assuming that the information given in the statement is 100 percent true, what conclusions hold definitive and logical.

Statement–

All eggs are waste.

All waste is food.

Conclusion–

1. Some food is waste.
2. Some waste are eggs.
1. Only conclusion II follows.
2. Both conclusions follow.
3. Neither conclusion I nor II follows.
4. The only conclusion I follow.

Solution–

Option 2. Both conclusions follow.

The Venn diagram can be made as shown below:

Source credits- testbook.com

Based on the diagram, the conclusion I that some foods are waste holds true and conclusion II that some wastes are eggs also holds true.

Question 3.

Based on the given statement, choose the most logical pair of statements as follows:

If one succeeds, one makes merry.

1. One did not succeed.
2. One did not make merry.
3. One succeeded

Options:

1. b,c
2. c,d
3. a,b
4. a,c
5. None

Solution– the given statement is affirmative and so the most logical pair of conclusions would be affirmative too. Thus option B. c,d is the correct option, directly reiterating that one succeeded and one made merry.

### CONCLUSION

As we come to an end, the point that mental exercises are an interesting and short, crisp way of keeping your mind healthy is in itself to do those different exercises. Syllogism is one such exercise working on your brain development, where one needs to draw inferences from the given data and match it with the presented conclusions. Coded syllogism is one where the given information or the statements are first to be decoded to arrive at the conclusions.