Summary of Themes in Indian History-IlI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Understanding Partition Reasons behind partition Separate electorates of 1909 that expanded in 1919 Separate electorates meant that Muslims could now elect their own representatives. This tempted the politicians to use sectarian slogans and do favours for own religious groups Religious identities thus got a functional use Muslims were angered by 'music-before-mosque' by cow-protection and by efforts of Arya Samaj-shuddhi movement Afterresults of 1937 elections, Muslim League wanted to form a joint govt with Congress. Congress, who had absolute majority, rejected the offer 18 .
Understanding Partition This convinced League that Muslims would find it difficult to gain political power as they would be a minority . Congressrejected coz League tended to support landlordism Muslim League thought Congress to be a Hindu party which would not represent interests of Muslims After elections, ML saw that it had a weak social support in Bengal NWFP and Punjab. From now on, it worked towards expanding its SoCial base After winning ministry, Congress didn't take any concrete steps to ndlordism. Neither did it gain d Muslim mass contact' programme In late 1930's, while Congress leaders insisted on need for secularism the idea was by no means universally shared lower down in p hierarchy
Understanding Partition Maulana Azad, a Congress leader, pointed that members of Congress weren'tallowed to join League, yet Congressmen were active in Hindu Mahasabha. Only in 1938, this was rectified 1940 -demand of autonomy for Muslim-majority areas. This didn't mention partition or Pakistan. Origin of Pakistan demand traced back to Urdu poet Muhammad labal who in 1930 spoke of need of a 'North-West Indian Muslim state' Initially demand was just a bargaining tactic as even Muslim leaders didn't seriously see the demand as a demand for a sovereign state e . . .QIM compelled British Raj to open a dialogue regarding possible transfer of power Failure of Cripps Mission and Cabinet Mission as alternatives to Partition. After failure of Cab Mission, partition became more inevitable
Understanding Partition All and breaking of riots in 1946 (after Direct Action Day) led many Congress and Sikh leaders to see partition as a necessary evil . Regional variations Partition was most bloody in Punjab- near total displacement of both communities In Bengal, migration was even more tough with people moving across a porous border, though exchange in population was not near-total Bengali Muslims rejected 2-nation theory then and later went on to create B'Desh . . In both states, women became prime targets. A notion of "honour" regarding zan(women) and zamin(land)
Framing the Constitution Constituent Assembly- Constitution .Members not elected on basis of universal franchise . Provincial Legislatures chose the representatives to C.A Was dominated by one party: Congress League chose to boycott the Constituent Assembly Socialists-initially unwilling to join-Constituent Assembly -creation of the British . . In effect, therefore, 82 % of the members were Congress members
Framing the Constitution Congress however was not a party with one voice Its members differed in their opinion on critical issues The discussions were also influenced by public opinion Arguments were reported in newspapers, and proposals were publicly debated .
Framing the Constitution Main contributors .Constituent Assembly 300 members. Of these, six members played particularly importantroles. Three were from Congress -Nehru, Patel and Rajendra Prasad Nehru moved the crucial "Objectives Resolution", as well as the resolution proposing that the National Flag of India be a "horizontal tricolour" with a wheel in navy blue at the centre Patel worked mostly behind the scenes, playing a key role in drafting of several reports, and working to reconcile opposing points of views Rajendra Prasad -President of the Assembly . .
Framing the Constitution Besides this Congress trio, Lawyer and economist B.R. Ambedkar- Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution. .Serving with him were two other lawyers, K.M. Munshi from Gujarat and Alladi Krishnaswamy Aiyar from Madras These six members were given vital assistance by two civil servants B. N. Rau, Constitutional Advisor to GO Chief Draughtsman, S. N. Mukherjee -put complex proposals in clear legal language .
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