Summary of Themes in Indian History-IlI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Framing the Constitution What was the Indian context in Constitution making? It was necessary to learn from the people of the West, but the Western nations too had to learn from experiments elsewhere Objective of our Constitution Fuse the liberal ideas of democracy with the socialist idea of economic justice Democracy, equality and justice -associated with social struggles in India When the social reformers in 19th century opposed child marriage, they were pleading for social justice When Swami Vivekananda campaigned for a reform of Hinduism, he wanted religions to become more just Jyotiba Phule,Communists -economic and social justice . . .
Framing the Constitution Was it a copy of all the Acts till now? . As demand for representation grew, British -constitutional reforms. . Acts (1909, 1919 & 1935)- gradually enlarged Indian participation in provincial governments and almost entirely under GOl Act ,1935 constitutional developments and what happened in the three years from .Executive made partly responsible to the provincial legislature in 1919, ta Weshouia notseetan unbroken continuity between he ciltier 1946 .While earlier constitutional experiments were in response to growing demand for a representative government, Acts (1909, 1919 & 1935) were not directly debated & formulated by Indians .Electorate that elected the limited to n more than 10 to 15 % of the adult population
Framing the Constitution ISSUE OF SEPARATE ELECTORATES .B. Pocker Bahadur-Madras powerful plea for continuing them "Minorities exist in all lands, they could not be wished away. The need was to create a political framework ...This was possible only if minorities were well represented within the political system" . Most nationalists saw them -British effort to divide people Separate electorates was a "poison that has entered the body politic of our country"-Sardar Patel Communities could be recognized as cultural entities and assured cultural rights. Politically, however, members of all communities had to act as equal members of one State
Framing the Constitution N.G. Ranga, a socialist-Term minorities be interpreted in economic terms. Real minorities were the poor and downtrodden Tribals, had its representatives -Jaipal Singh- Was not asking for separate electorates, but felt that reservation in legislature was essential During national movement Ambedkar-separate electorates for Depressed Castes, and Mahatma Gandhi had opposed it . Their suffering was due to their systematic marginalisation, not their numerical insignificance After Partition violence, Ambedkar didn'twant separate electorates. Finally -untouchability abolished, Hindu temples be thrown open to all castes, and seats be reserved for the lowest castes.
Framing the Constitution Powers of the State Strong Centre -Jawaharlal Nehru- "Now that partition is a settled fact, weak central authority" Draft Constitution-three lists of subjects: Union, State, and Concurrent. Many more items were placed under exclusive Union control Article 356-Centre -powers to take over a state administration Constitution -complex system of fiscal federalism . . .
Framing the Constitution . Rights of states were defended by K. Santhanam from Madras . This was necessary to strengthen not only states but also Centre. If Centre overburdened, it could not function effectively Fiscal provisions would impoverish provinces since most taxes, except land revenue, had been made preserve of Centre. Ambedkar -"a strong and united Centre,much stronger than that under GOl 1935", reminding the riots and violence Before Partition,Congress-grant considerable autonomy to the provinces. This was an effort to assure Muslim League Already a unitary system in place, imposed by British Centralisation also now seen as necessary -economic development . .
Framing the Constitution Language of the Nation 1930s- Congress - Hindustani -national language Gandhiji-common people could easily understand Hindustani- a blend of Hindi and Urdu From end of 19th century- Hindustani -gradually changing Hindi and Urdu also started growing apart. On the one hand, there was a move to Sanskritise Hindi, purging it of all words of Persian and Arabic oigin. On the other hand, Urdu was being increasingly Persianised Mahatma Gandhi, however, retained his faith in the composite character . . . . .
Framing the Constitution R. V. Dhulekar, Congressman from UP -Hindi Language Committee -compromise formula to resolve deadlock between those who advocated Hindi and those who opposed it It had decided, but not yet formally declared, that Hindi in the Devanagari script would be the official language, but transition to Hindi would be gradual For 1st 15 years, English -for all official purposes Each province -allowed to choose one of the regional languages for official work . . . . By referring to Hindi as the official rather that the national language, Language Committee hoped to placate emotions
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