Summary of Themes in Indian History-IlI By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Rebels and the Raj How did the mutiny begin? Sepoys started the mutiny, seized ammunition and treasury. attacked govt buildings Slowly ordinary people joined in and targets of attack widened- For e.g. in major towns like Lucknow and Kanpur, moneylenders and rich became targets There was a SIMILARITY in pattern of revolt due to PLANNING and communication b/w sepoy lines of various cantonments Mosf of fhem came from same casfe ,shared a common litesfyle and took COLLECTIVE DECISIONS . . So sepoys were makers of their own rebellion
Rebels and the Raj Mutiny, Revolt and Rebellion Mutiny- Collective disobedience of rules within ARMED FORCES . Revolt- Rebellion of PEOPLE against authority. Revolt and Rebellion are used synonymously
Rebels and the Raj Leaders and followers . Rebels turned to leaders before British conquest .So sepoys of Meerut rushed to MUGHAL EMPEROR . People of Kanpur made Nana Sahib their ruler Arrah, Bihar- Kunwar Singh, a zamindar Lucknow- Birjis Qadr, son of Nawab as leader . Not everywhere were the leaders people of the court Often by ORDINARY men + Sometimes by RELIGIOUS MEN too Elsewhere, local leaders emerged urging peasants and tribals to revolt-Shah Mal mobilised villagers of a pargana in UP .
Rebels and the Raj Other than leaders, even rumours and prophecies had a role Cow and pig fat on greased cartridges of Enfield rifles Rumour of British hatching a conspiracy to destroy caste and religion of Hindus and Muslims- Bone dust of cows and pigs in flour Prophecy that British rule will come to an end on centenary of Battle of Plassey i.e. 23 June, 1857 Chapattis distributed in N.India from village to village . . These were believed as such rumours resonated with the fears of people
Rebels and the Raj British policies . Under GG Lord William Bentinck, British introduced W. education . Setting up English-medium schools and colleges . Laws to abolish sati, permit widow remarriagee . British annexed many kingdoms on various excuses and later introduced their own administrative system, revenue settlement in such areas People thought that whatever they thought as sacred-kings, socio-religious customs, land, was being destroyed
Rebels and the Raj Taking an example of Awadh (1856) "A cherry that will drop into our mouth one day"- Lord Dalhousie Subsidiary Alliance had been imposed in 1801 Nawab dependent on British+ Couldn't assert control over taluqdars . .Meanwhile British grew interested in producing indigo and cotton 1856- Annexed+ Nawab Wajid Ali Shah dethroned and exiled to Calcutta. He was a widely loved ruler An emotional upheaval was accompanied by material losses- dissolution of court and its culture- music, artisans, etc.
Rebels and the Raj e Annexation dispossessed faluagdars of their forts and armies Summary Settlement of 1856 imposed by assuming that taluqdars were mere interlopers who held control over land by force and had no permanent stakes in land This policy removed many taluqdars . British thought of negotiating directly with peasants+ Reduce their level of exploitation Didn'thappen- Revenue flow to state increased but burden on peasants didn'treduce . It was found that large areas of Awadh were overassessed Talugdars were regarded as father-figures by some peasants- Relax revenue demand +loans Many taluqdars loyal to Begum and fought against British .
Rebels and the Raj .Peasant grievances were carried to sepoy lines as well as many sepoys recruited from villages of Awadh Awadh- nursery of Bengal Army 13 . Many of the Brahmins or from upper castes They didn'tget sufficient pay and leave Earlier white officers used to maintain friendly relations but in 1840's, this changed and sepoys began to be treated as racial inferiors .
Rebels and the Raj Repression ns easier + Martial law Even ordinary Britons given power to punish Indians . ordinary processes of law and trial were suspended . Symbolic value attached to Delhi understood and Mughal palace, gardens,etc.were plundered in Delhi A two-pronged attack was launched on Delhi In Gangetic plain, British reconquest was slow and had to occur village by village Tried breaking unity by winning over princely rulers, zamindars . . .
Rebels and the Raj
Rebels and the Raj
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