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Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings
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This lesson provides you the summary of Chapter 4 titled 'Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings'.

Yasmin Gill
Qualified for UPSC CSE 2015 mains, Rank 24th in Punjab PCS.

Unacademy user
Sir, Please explain Article 32 of the constitution i.e. RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES. Specially the terms (i) hebeas corpus (ii) mandamus (iii) prohibition (iv) certiorari (v) quo war-rento
Sutta pitaka & Vinay Pitaka - 1st Buddhist Council... Under the patronage of Ajatshatru, presided by Mahakashyapa Abhidham Pitaka - 3rd Buddhist Council... Under the patronage of Ashoka, presided by Moggaliputta Tissa
Kailashnath Temple - Ellora Caves, Maharashtra Mahabalipuram Temple - Tamilnadu
Buddha - 623 BC & Mahavira - 600 BC... Buddhism is the older religion of the two
amazing lessons mam. thank u so much.
Barabar Caves , located in Barabar hills, was built by Ashoka for ajeevika sect.
Thanks for awesome lesson !
  1. Summary of Themes in Indian History-l By- Yasmin Gill


  2. About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE


  3. Thinkers, beliefs and buildings 600 BC-600 CE Sacrifices and debates 1st millennium BC-Turning point in world history . Emergence of thinkers-Zarathustra in Iran, Kong Zi in China, Socrates-Plato-Aristotle in Greece and Mahavira & Buddha in India Rigveda- 1500-1000 BC- Initially collective sacrifices, then . individual sacrifices Upanishads were curious about meaning of life People began questioning sacrifices .


  4. Thinkers, beliefs and buildings .Buddhist texts- Debates took plate in kutagarashala-literally, a hut with pointed roof If a philosopher succeeded in convincing one of the rivals, followers of the latter also became his disciples . Buddhism and Jainism questioned authority of Vedas They focused on SELF-EFFORT rather than depending on priests to attain moksha Also, they said that anyone could attain it . .


  5. Thinkers, beliefs and buildings Buddhist pitakas (literal- baskets) . Vinaya pitaka- Rules for those who joined sangha Sutta pitaka- Teachings of Buddha Abhidhamma pitaka- Dealt with philosophical matters . Other texts included Dipavamsa (chronicle of the island) and Mahavamsa (the great chronicle)- Sri Lankan texts- Regional histories of Buddhism


  6. Thinkers, beliefs and buildings Fatalists and materalists Makkhali Gosala- Ajivika sect Pleasure and pain can not be changed by transmigration of soul They can neither be increased nor decreased Everything is pre-destined . . Ajita Kesakambalin- Tradition of Lokayata- materialists . There is no 'next-world . A human being is made of only 4 elements and soul doesn't exist


  7. Thinkers, beliefs and buildings Vardhamana Mahavira Preceded by 23 other tirthankaras/teachers . Everything is animated - even rocks and water has life . Ahimsa is central to Jain philosophy Cycle of birth and rebirth depends on karma Asceticism is must to free oneself from karma- Monastic life 5 vows- Abstain from lying, killing, stealing, possessing property and observe celibacy . .Languages-Prakrit, Sanskrit and Tamil


  8. Gautama Buddha Born in Sakya clan e Sidaharrha was Budaha's name when born Teachings .Four Noble Truths Eight Fold Path to nibbana . World is transient and constantly changing . World is soul-less . Middle Path . Whether or not God existed was irrelevant . Social world was creation of humans and not by God . Focus is on individual effort . Last words- "Be lamps unto yourselves as all of you must work out your own liberation"


  9. Thinkers, beliefs and buildings Founded sangha and initially only men were allowed to join Entry of women was when Ananda (disciple) persuaded Buddha Foster mother Gotami- 1st woman- bhikkhuni . . Many such women became theris or respected women who had attained liberation Bhikkhus- Monks who had to live on alms . . Internal functioning democratic- based on ganasanghas


  10. Thinkers, beliefs and buildings Chaityas- Sacred sites with small shrines attached to them 4 important sites- Lumbini (birth), Bodhgaya (enlightenment), 1st sermon (Sarnath) and nibbana (Kusinagara) . . Ashoka erecteda pillar at Lumbini Stupas- Tradition was pre-Buddhist but became to be associated with Buddhism Contained relics of Buddha or other Boddhisatvas Some were made by donations from dynasties such as Satvahanas, gateway at Sanchi financed by ivory workers' guild Mention of donations by women as well . .


  11. Thinkers, beliels and buildings


  12. Thinkers, beliefs and buildings New religious traditions Mahayana Buddhism- Literal, "the great vehicle" By 1st century CE- Changes in Buddhist ideas and practices .Now, instead of self-effort, idea of a savior in form of Bodhisatta developed They were compassionate beings who stayed on Earth to help others attain salvation .Buddha came to be recognized as a human being Older tradition came to be k/a Hinayana or "lesser vehicle". However older tradition preferred to call themselves as "theravadins" or those who followed the path of old teachers,the theras


  13. Thinkers, beliefs and buildings Some of the Early temples were made out of huge rocks as ARTIFICIAL CAVES . For e.g. Asoka got such caves made for Ajivika sect . Slowly, huge rocks came to be used to carve out entire temple For e.g. Kailashnatha temple After completing it, chief sculptor- "Oh, how did I make it!" Sculpture in Mahabalipuram Descent of River Ganga through natural cleft in centre of rock surface- Story in Puranas Arjuna doing penance on river bank to acquire arms .


  14. Thinkers, beliels and buildings


  15. Gratitude is the best attitude Rate/review/recommend the course