Summary of Themes in Indian History-l By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Kings , farmers and towns 600 BC-600 CE Megaliths- Elaborate stone structures made for disposal of dead Emerged in Central and South India KINGS . James Princep deciphered BRAHMl and KHAROSTHl in 1830's and 600 BC Turning point in history . New streams of thought- Buddhism, Jainism etc. . While mostruled by kings, some i.e. ganasanghas were found mentioned of piyadassi, ie. Asoka Rise of early states, cities and increasing use of iron These early states werek/a mahajanapadas- 16 in number OLIGARCHIES-power sharing by number of men, collectively called rajas
Kings , farmers and towns India, 600 B.C The 16 Mahajanapadas Kamboja Gandhafa Kuru Kosala Malla Vrijji Matsya ashi Vatsa Avanti Chetiya Magadha Assaka . Cities Rivers Modern Boundaries 00 200 D
Kings , farmers and towns Mahavira and Buddha belonged to ganasanghas Janapada -land where jana (people/clan/tribe) settles Word used in both Prakrit and Sanskrit . Each mahajanapada had a capital city which was fortified . To maintain fortified cities, armies and bureaucracies-Resources i.e. tax mechanisms Dharmasutras i.e. Sanskrit texts laid down norms for rulers who were advised to collect taxes and tributes Raids on neighbouring states considered legitimate e While infialy dependence was on militia recruifed from peasantry, slowly a REGULAR ARMY began to be developed .
Kings , farmers and towns Magadha .Located in present day Bihar Initial capital- Rajgir and later shifted to Pataliputra (Patna) Most powerful mahajanapada- Why? Geography- Agriculture productive Accessibility of iron tools, weapons . Elephants found in forests-used in wars . Ganga & tributaries Cheap communication Policies of individual & ambitious rulers
Kings , farmers and towns Growth of Magadha led to rise of Mauryan empire Founded by CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA Megasthenes- Greek ambassador to court of C.Maurya-Indica . . ister under CM]- Composed Arthashastra .Kautilya/Chanakya (min . 5 major political centres in Mauryan empire- Pataliputra, Taxila, . Adminstrative control strongest in areas around capital & provincial . Taxila and Ujain on long-distance trade routes Ashokan inscriptions- 1st ruler to inscribe messages to his subjects Ujjain, Tosali and Suvarnagiri centres . Suvarnagiri - gold mines in Ktk
Kings , farmers and towns Ashoka propagated dhamma with help f special officers k/a dhamma mahamatta . At same time, we had chiefs and chiefdoms in Deccan and further South Source of knowing them-Sangam Literature . Chiefdoms of CCP- Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas Chief-Powerful man whose position may/may not be hereditary Support from kinfolk Receives GIFTS from sub-ordinates unlike TAXES collected by kings Generally they have no regular armies . .
Kings , farmers and towns After Mauryan empire Satvahanas in western and central Indioa Coming of Shakas (C.Asia) in NW and Western parts of subcontinent They derived revenues from long-distance trade Social origins not clearly known . . . Coming of DIVINE kings Kushanas used this strategy It was used to enhance social prestige by identifying themselves with deities Evident in coins and sculptures Grand Kushana ruler's statues at village k/a MAT near Mathurc Adoption of titles like devaputra/son of God .
Kings , farmers and towns
Changing countryside Relations b/w rulers and his rural population at times were strained when tax demand was highh There were constant efforts to increase agri production- especially in fertile river valleys- Ganga, Kaveri For this, iron plough was used Paddy production increased by introduction of transplantation Irrigation techniques-mainly well, tanks and less commonly canals But these technologies were not used all over . For e.g. Semi arid areas such as Punjab & Rajasthan didn't use them NE and C.India mainly practised hoe agriculture
Kings , farmers and towns Some say that land grants in this time was a strategy to extend agriculture Some feel that they were indicative of weakening political power of kings. So land grants were for winning over allies Some say that by land grants, kings tried to project themselves as supermen Agrahara was land granted to Brahmana, who was generally exempted from paying land revenue + Also given right to collect dues from local people . . . .