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The Central Place Theory
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Walter Christaller's Central Place Theory.

Maitrayee Mullick
I hold a Master's degree in Geography and also have qualified for the UGC NET (JRF). Recipient of the Jony Ive Award from Unacademy.

U
Unacademy user
supper sir your slow clear understand
KP VENKAT
a year ago
நன்றி தொடர்ந்து தேர்வுக்கு பயனுள்ள வீடியோக்கள் பதிவேற்றம் செய்யப்படும் தொடர்ந்து பார்க்கவும் நன்றி
thank you so much ma'am..👌👌👌
Maitrayee Mullick
10 months ago
You're most welcome. :)
  1. The Central Place Theory presented by Maitrayee Mullick https://unacademy.com/user/maitrayee2295


  2. The Central Place Theory presented by Maitrayee Mullick https://unacademy.com/user/maitrayee2295


  3. The Central Place Theory presented by Maitrayee Mullick https://unacademy.com/user/maitrayee2295


  4. 4 Follow for upload notifications https://unacademy.com/user/maitrayee2295 Maitrayee Mullick ducator since November 201 I hold a Master's degree in Geography and also have qualifed for the UGC NET (JRF) Alongside I am also a teaching enthusiant 321 18 All courses (8) Social and Cultural Geography for NTA UGC NET 4-358 iews2 days ago Maitrayee ulick


  5. Things to ve covered in this lesson... 03 Sphere of Influence of the central place: K-values Concept of Central Place Validation of the theory Criticisms theory o1 02 Assumptions and Explanations


  6. Central place theory is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in a residential system. The theory was created by the German geographer Walter Christaller, who asserted that settlements simply functioned as 'central places' providing services to surrounding areas


  7. To develop the theory, Christaller made the following simplifying assumptions All areas have: 1. an unbounded isotropic (all flat), 2. homogeneous, limitless surface (abstract 7. perfect competition and all sellers are economic 8. consumers are of the same income level and same 9. all consumers have a similar purchasing power and 10.Consumers visit the nearest central places that 11. no provider of goods or services is able to earn people maximizing their profits. co shopping behavior. space) an evenly distributed population 3. demand for goods and services. 4. all settlements are equidistant and exist provide the function which they demand. They minimize the distance to be travelled. in a triangular lattice pattern evenly distributed resources distance decay mechanism 5. excess profit (each supplier has a monopoly over a hinterland) 12. There is only one type of transport and this would be 6. equally easy in all directions 13. transport cost is directly proportional to distance traveled


  8. theory then relied on two concepts: threshold and ran o Threshold is the minimum market (population or income) needed to bring about the selling of a particular good or service. Range is the maximum distance consumers are prepared to travel to acquire goods - at some point the cost or inconvenience will outweigh the need for the good. The result of these consumer preferences is that a system of centers of various sizes will emerge. Each center will supply particular types of goods forming levels of hierarchy. In the functional hierarchies, generalizations can be made regarding the spacing, size and function of settlements


  9. Diagrammatic Representation of the Central Place Theory 10


  10. 14 The different layouts predicted by Christaller have K-values which how much the Sphere of Influence of the central places t tral place itself counts as 1 and each portion of a counts as its portion: o K 3 Marketing o K 4 Transport/Traffic a K 7 Administrative principle principle principle


  11. 15 e Sphere of Influence of the central places takes in -the central place itself counts as 1 and each portion of a satellite counts as its portion K 3 Marketing principle According to the marketing principle K 3, the market area of a higher-order place(node) occupies 1/3rd of the market area of each of the consecutive lower size place(node) which lies on its neighbor; the lower size nodes (6 in numbers and 2nd larger circles) are located at the corner of a largest hexagorn around low value the high-order settlement. Each high-order settlement gets 1/3rd of each satellite settlement (which are 6 in total), thus K 1+6x1/3 3


  12. 17 K = 7 Administrative principle a According to K = 7 administrative principle (or political-social principle), settlements are nested according to sevens. The market areas of the smaller settlements are completely enclosed within the market area of the larger settlement. Since tributary areas cannot be split administratively, they must be allocated exclusively to a single higher-order place. Efficient administration is the control principle in this hierarchy.


  13. 18 The validity of the place theory The validity of the place theory may vary with local factors, such as climate, topography, history of development, technological improvement and personal preference of consumers and suppliers However, it is still possible to discern Christaller patterns in most distributions of urban centres, even though these patterns will often be distorted by the terrain or imperfect because of suboptimal (with regard to the optimal distribution of centres) historical development decisions. Economic status of consumers in an area is also important. Consumers of higher economic status tend to be more mobile and therefore bypass centers providing only lower order goods. The application of central place theory must be tempered by an awareness of such factors when planning shopping center space location. Purchasing power and density affect the spacing of centers and hierarchical arrangements. Sufficient densities will allow, for example, a grocery store, a lower order function, to survive in an isolated location.


  14. 19 Factors shaping the extent of market areas: Land use: industrial areas can provide little in the way of a consuming population Poor accessibility: this can limit the extent of a center's market area Competition: this limits the extent of market areas in all directions Technology: high mobility afforded by the automobile allows overlapping of market areas Market area studies provide another technique for using central place theory as a retail location planning tool. The hierarchy of shopping centers has been widely used within the planning of "new towns". In this new town, the hierarchy of business centers is evident. One main shopping center provides mostly durable goods (higher order); district and local shopping centers supply, increasingly, convenience (lower order) goods. These centers provided for in the hew town plan are not free from outside competition. The impacts ofl surroundipg existing centers on thelnew town centers cannot be ignored.


  15. 20 Criticism The Central Place Theory has been criticized for being static; it does not incorporate the temporal aspect in the development of central places. Furthermore, the theory holds up well when it comes to agricultural areas, but not industrial or postindustrial areas due to their diversified nature of various services or their varied distribution of natural resources.


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