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Probability (in Hindi)
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Manisha Malhotra
Msc in microbiology with gold medal, qualified GATE and Uttarakhand-set. Admin of the you tube channel Manisha Malhotra tutorials.

U
aap such may great ho sir... miss you
1. Probability IMPOSSIBLE UNLIKELY EVEN CHANCE LIKELY CERTAIN 1-IN-6 CHANCE 4-IN-5 CHANCE

2. The chances of occurring a particular event from number of different events is termed as probability uring the flip of a coin For eg-D , what is the probability of getting the "Heads", when it lands? No. of times an event occur Total no. of events No. of times heads come Total no. of sides Probability - Probability - 1+1 -0.5 or 50% 2

3. Que- when two heterozygous purple flowers (Pp) were crossed, the phenotypic ratio of the ofspring will be 3 purple: 1 white, calculate the probability for white offsprings to occur. No. of individuals with white phenotype Probability Total no. of individuals P PP Pp Probability for white offsprings- 4 p Pp

4. 2 rules used in probability Product rule/ multiplicative law Sum rule/ additive law

5. Multiplicative rule Chances of two or more independent events occurring together. Example- A cross has been made between pea plants that are heterozygous for seed form (round and wrinkled) 'Rr'. Calculate the probability of offsprings to be homozygous recessive

6. Probability of getting r from the sperm V Probability of getting r from the egg2 R RR Rr Rr Probability of offspring to be homozygous recessive-* V2 4

7. Additive rule Chances of one of the two or more events occurring individually. Example- In a cross between pea plants heterozygous for seed form. Calculate the probability of offsprings to be heterozygous

8. Case 1-Probability of getting R from the sperm- V2 Probability of getting r from the egg- Probability of heterozygousity-2* V2- 4 R RR Case 2-Probability of getting r from the sperm - V2 Probability of getting R from the ega Probability of heterozygousity-%* Probability of offsprings to be heterozygous 4 V2