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Disasters and Disaster Management Presented By Roman Saini
Course Structure dia C. Disas Way forward 1. DM Prevention & 1. Previous Year 1. Challenges in DM 2. Disasters in India during 3. 4. DM Act 2005,NDMA 5. National Policy on Disaster 4. Recovery-Relief& 6. National Disaster Questions Trend the year 2017 DM Institutes in India-NDMA,NDRF,NIDM 2. Introduction to Mitigation System Mechanism-EWS Disaster Phenomena 2. Emergency Response 3. Disaster in India i.Earthquakes ii.Cyclone ll. I sunami iv.Floods v.Droughts vi.Landslide 3. Risk Reduction Guidelines 2010 Management (NPDM) Rehabilitation Community Based DM Use of Science & Technology in DM 5. 6. Management Plan (NDMP), 2016 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 vii.Avalanches vii.Industrial Disaster 7. ix.Epidemic
INTRODUCTION 1. Previous Year Questions Trend 2. Introduction to Disaster Phenomena 3. Disaster in India -Earthquakes, Landslides, Floods, Cyclone, Tsunami, Drought, Industrial Disast Epidemics, Avalanches, Sea Erosion etc.
Previous Year Questions Trend QUESTIONS ASKED IN MAINS EXAMINATION (GS Paper 3) YEAR MARKS Q 18.How important are vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management? As an administrator, what are key areas that you would focus on in a Disaster Management. 10 Q 14.Drought has been recognized as a disaster in view of its spatial expenses, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effects on vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from NDMA, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with likely El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India. 2014 12.5 Q 16.The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, India's preparedness for mitigating their impact has significant gaps. Discuss various aspects 2015 12.5
Previous Year Questions Trend- QUESTIONS ASKED IN MAINS EXAMINATION (GS Paper 1 & 3) YEAR MARKS GS Paper 1 Q 14.The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides." Discuss the causes and suggest suitable measures of mitigation. (12.5) Q 17.Major cities of India are becoming more vulnerable to flood conditions. Discuss. (12.5) 2016 GS Paper 3 50 Q15.The frequency of urban floods due to high intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods, highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.(12.5) Q16.With reference to NDMA guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of the recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand. (12.5) GS Paper1 Q 16. In what way can floods be converted into a sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India? (15) GS Paper 3 30 Q18. On December 2004, tsunami brought havoc on 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. (15)
Introduction Natural disasters and crises have been an integral part of human history right from the dawn of civilization The rise and fall of the Indus Valley and Babylonian civilizations are a testimony to this. In the early days, individuals and communities would lead the response to crisis However, with the emergence of the modern welfare state and the 20th century trends of globalization, urbanization, large-scale migrations of human population and climate changes, the nature of crises facing nations has increased both in magnitude and complexity DISASTER A crisis may degenerate into a disaster if it is CRISIS The literal meaning of the term crisis' is an tate of affairs in which a decisive change is impendin especial.one with the distinct possiblity o t hnaster is an mportant one. A disaster takes The difference between a hazard and a hly undesirable outc ni Thus, crisis, may be defined as "an emergency situation arising out of natural or human activity which poses a threat to human life and property or leads to large scale disruption of normal life". (usually defined as an event and even psychological factors that shape people's that overwhelms that community's capacity to cope) In other words, the impact of the disaster is determined by the extent of a community's vulnerability to the hazard
Types of Crisis Crises can be classified into the following categories: 1. Crises caused by acts of nature. These can further be divided into the following sub-categories: a. Climatic events: cyclones and storms (associated sea erosion), floods and drought and b. Geological events: earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides and avalanches; 2. Crises caused by environmental degradation and disturbance of the ecological balance; Crises caused by accidents. These, again, can be further classified into industrial and nuclear mishaps and fire related accidents; 3. 4. Crises caused by biological activities: public health crises, epidemics etc 5. Crises caused by hostile elements: war, terrorism, extremism, insurgency etc 6. Crises caused by disruption/failure of major infrastructure facilities including communication systems, large-scale strikes etc; and 7. Crises caused by large crowds getting out of control.
Life Cycle of Crisis Depending on its intensity and area of impact, a crisis situation may be labeled as Local, .Sub district, District, State or National level. The scale of crisis determines the nature and level of response. It is also necessary to recognize that often a crisis does not emerge suddenly; it has a life cycle, which may take days, months or even decades to develop depending on its causative factors. This life cycle, of crisis management may be divided broadly in three phases- 1. Pre-crisis- Mitigation and Preparedness activities 2. During crisis- Emergency response activities 3. Post crisis- Recovery, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction activities
What is a Disaster ? A disaster can be defined as "A serious disruption in the functioning of the community or a society causing wide spread material, economic, social or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources". A disaster is a result from the combination of hazard, vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential chances of risk. A disaster happens when a hazard impacts on the vulnerable population and causes damage, casualties and disruption. Any hazard - Flood, earthquake or cyclone which is a triggering event along with greater vulnerability (inadequate access to resources, sick and old people, lack of awareness etc) would lead to disaster causing greater loss to life and property. For example; an earthquake in an uninhabited desert cannot be considered a disaster, no matter how strong the intensity produced. An earthquake is disastrous only when it affects people, their properties and activities.
VULNERABILITY HAZARD DISASTER rigger Event Earthquake Tsunami Floods Cyclones Volcanic Eruptions Drought, Landslide, War Technological Accident Environmental Pollution etc Underlying_causes; limited access to resources illness and disabilities, Age/sex, poverty Dynamic Pressure; lack of institutions, education, training, skills; population expansion, urbanization, uncontrolled degradation development environmental Unsafe Conditions; Dangerous location, dangerous building, low income level etc Thus, disaster occurs only when hazards and vulnerability meet. Therefore, we need to understand the three major components namely hazard, vulnerability and capacity with suitable examples to have a basic understanding of disaster management