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Post Mauryan Trends
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Aishwarya Himanshu Singh
Cleared UPSC- CDS 2019 (1) Preliminary Exam 'The Hindu' reader, Jack of all trades, master of none But better than a Master of one

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Really Really your every lecture on unacademy are really awesome the way in which u explained sir ji it's really comprehend by each one of us. And this full series very crisp, interesting and thanks for your dedication, determination, tenacity of making education revolution with quality, affordability and accessibility sir and I also thanks to Roman saini sir for creating this online free platform and connecting great educator like u sir to us. We really blessed with your hard work awesome lecture. and I am 100% sure that u will upload lot more videos on other topic as well. KUDOS
  1. The Mauryan empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya but reached its zenith under Ashoka. The Mauryan empire (322 BC 185 BC) was the largest to have ever existed in the indian subcontinent, spanning over 5 million square kilometres OTA

  2. ART OF THE MAURYAN EMPIRE .Sixth century B.C. marks the beginning of new religious and social movements in the Gangetic valley in the form of Buddhism and Jainism (Sramana/Shraman Tradition) Magadha emerged as a powerful kingdom and consolidated its control over the other religions By the third century, a large part of India was under Maurya control . Ashoka emerged as the most powerful king of the Maurya dynasty. .Religious practices had many dimensions during this period. Worship of Yakshas and Mother Goddess was prevalent during that time. . Yaksha worship was very popular before and after the advent of Buddhism and it was assimilated in Buddhism and Jainism. .Construction of stupas and viharas (dwelling place of monks) became part of the Buddhist tradition. However, in this period, apart from stupas and viharas, stone pillars, rock cut caves and monumental figure sculptures were carved in several places. 3

  3. PILLARS .Even though constructing pillars are very old, Mauryan pillars are different from the pillars in the other parts of the world (like Achaemenian pillars) as they are rock cut pillars thus displaying the carver's skills. . Stone pillars were erected all over the Mauryan Empire. . The uppermost elements of a pillar or column is known a capital. The top portion of the pillar was carved with figures like a bull, lion, elephant, etc. All the capital figures (usually animals) are vigorous and carved standing on a square or circular abacus. Abacuses are decorated with stylized lotuses. Mauryan pillar capital found at Sarnath popularly known as the Lion Capital is the finest example of Mauryan sculpture tradition. 4

  4. The lion capital discovered more than a hundred years ago at sarnath, near varanasi, is generally referred as sarnath lion capital. It is one of the finest examples of sculpture from mauryan period and was built by ashoka in commemoration of 'dhammachakrapravartana' or the first sermon of buddha Animal Originally it consists of five components: the pillar shaft. i. The lotus bell or base. ii. A drum on the bell base with four animals proceeding clockwise (abacus) ii. Figure of four majestic addorsed (back to back) lions iv. the crowning element, v. dharamchakra/dharmachakra Abacus Base (Inverted lotus) Clear Pillar shaft IAS Figure: Representation of the capital above the pillar shaft

  5. .Dharamchakra (the fifth component said above), a large wheel was also a part of this pillar. However, this wheel is lying in broken condition and is displayed in the site museum of Sarnath. The capital has four Asiatic lions seated back to back and their facial muscularity is very strong. They symbolize power, courage, pride and confidence. The surface of the sculpture is heavily polished, which is typical of the Mauryan . period. Abacus (drum on the bell base) has the depiction of a chakra (wheel) in all four directions and a bull, a horse, an elephant and a lion between every chakra. .Each chakra has 24 spokes in it. . This 24 spoke chakra is adopted to the National Flag of India. 6

  6. The circular abacus is supported by an inverted lotus capital. The capital without the shaft, the lotus bell and crowning wheel has been adopted as the National Emblem of Independent India. ' . In the emblem adopted by Madhav Sawhey, only three Lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The abacus is also set in such a way that only one chakra can be seen in the middle, with the bull on the right and horse on the left. A lion capital has also been found at Sanchi, but is in a dilapidated condition. A pillar found at Vaishali is facing towards the north, which is the direction of Buddha's last voyage. 7