Navdeep Kaur is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Teaching Aptitude with MCQs Target JRF Methods of Teaching (for CBSE UGC NET Paper 1) By Navdeep. Kaur
Contents 1 Meaning, aspects, Basic Requirements, Factors Affecting Teaching 2 Methods of Teaching 3 Objectives, Aims and Modes of Teaching, Phases of Teaching 4 Methods of Teaching According to Different Schools of Philosophy 5 MCQs Solving technique
There are different types of teaching methods which can be categorised into three broad types. These are: o Teacher-centred methods Learner-centred methods, o Content-focused methods Interactive/participative methods
INSTRUCTORTEACHER CENTRED METHODS The teacher is looked upon by the learners as an expert or an authority. Learners on the other hand are presumed to be passive and copious recipients of knowledge from the teacher . LEARNER CENTRED METHODS the teacher/instructor is both a teacher and a learner at the same time. CONTENT-FOCUSED METHODS Teacher and the learners have to fit into the content that is taught. Generally This means the information and skills to be taught are regarded as sacrosanct or very important. INTERACTIVE PARTICIPATIVE METHODS Driven by the situational analysis of what is the most appropriate thing for us to learn/do now given the situation of learners and the teacher
THE LECTURE METHOD A formal or semi-formal discourse is which the instructor presents a series of events, facts, or principles, explores a problem or explains relationships 1. To orient students 2. To introduce a subject. 3. lo give directions on procedures. 4. To present basic material 5. To introduce a demonstration, discussion, or 1. Saves time. 2. Permits flexibility 3. Requires less rigid space requirement 4. Permits adaptability. 5. Permits versatility. 6. Permits better centre over contact and sequence. 1. Involves one wa communication 2. Poses problems in skill teaching 3. Encourages student passiveness 4. Poses difficulty in gauging student reaction. 5. Require highly skilled instructors erformance. 6. To illustrate application of rules, principles, or concepts. 7. To review, clarify, emphasise or summarise
THE DISCUSSION METHOD A method in which group discussion techniques are used to reach instructional objectives 1. To develop imaginative solutions to problems 2. To stimulate thinking and interest comitments and to secure student participation 3. To emphasise main teaching points 4. To supplement lectures, reading, or because of high degree of student laboratory exercises 5. To determine how well student understands concepts and principles 6. To prepare students for application of theory of procedure 7. To summarise, clarify points or review 1. Require highly skilled instructor 2. Requires preparation by student. 3. Limits content. 4. Consumes time 5. Restricts size of groups 1. Increase students interest 2. Increases students acceptance and 3. Utilises student knowledge and experience 4. Results in more permanent learning participation THE PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION 1. To provde make-up instruction for 2. Improves end-of course 1. Reduce failure rate 2. Improves end-of-course proficiency 3. Saves time 4. Provides for self instruction. 1. Require local or commercial preparation 2. 2. To provide make-up instruction for late arrivals, absentees, or translents. 3. To maintain previously learned skills which are not performed frequently enough 4. To provide retraining on equipment and procedures which have become obsolete 5. To upgrade production. 6. To accelerate capable students 7. To provide enough common background among students 8. To provide the review and practice of knowledge and skills A method of self-instruction Requires lengthy programmer training 3. Increases expenses 4. Requires considerable lead
THE STUDY ASSIGNMENT METHOD A method in which the instructor assigns reading to books, periodicals, project or research papers or exercises for the practice. 1. To orient students to a topic prior to classroom or Laboratory work. 2. To set the stage for a lecture demonstration or discussion 3. To provide for or capitalise on individual differences in ability, background, or experience through differentiated assignments 4. To provide for the revievw of material covered in class or to give practice 5. To provide enrichment material. 1. Increase coverage of material 2. Reduce classroom time. 3. Permits individual attention. 1. Require careful plannin and follow up 2. Poses evaluation problem 3. Produce non-standard results
THE TUTORIAL METHOD A method of instruction in which an instructor works directly with an individual student. 1. To reach highly complicated skills operations or operations involving danger or expensive equipment. 2. To provide individualised remedial assistance. 1. Permits adaptive instruction. 2. Stimulates active participation. 3. Promotes safety. 1. Requires highly competent instructor. 2. Demands time and money.
1. Requires highly competent instructor 2. Poses evaluation problems. 3. Is more costly than most other methods 1. To provide general guidance for a group working on an advanced study or research project 2. To exchange information on techniques and approaches being explored by members of a study or research group. 3. To develop new and imaginative solutions to problems under study by the group THE SEMINAR METHOD A tutorial arrangement involving the instructor and groups, rather than instructor and individual. 1. Provides motivation and report 2. Stimulates active participation. 3. Permits adaptive instruction.
THE DEMONSTRATION METHOD A method of instruction where the instructor by actually performing an operation or doing a job shows the students what to do, how to do it, and through explanations brings out why, where, and when it is done 1. To teach manipulative operations or procedures. 2. To teach troubleshooting. 3. To illustrate principles 4. To teach operation or functioning of equipment 5. To teach teamwork 6. To set standards of workmanship 7. To teach safety procedures. 1. Minimise damage and waste 2. Saves time 3. Can be presented to large groups 1. Require careful preparation and rehearsal. 2. Requires special classroom arrangements
BRAINSTORMING Brainstorming is a large or small group activity that encourages students to focus on a topic and contribute to the free flow of ideas 1. Discover 1. Leads to a 1.It takes time new ideas, very animated particularly if thoughts and and energising it is a large responses very quickly. session 2. More reserved participants feel free to contribute. group. 2. May consume a lot of material e.g. flipcharts or writing materials. 3. Requires high level facilitation skills.
Few Key Points to be Noted for Methods of Teaching Individual presentation . Hamm (2008) quoted Rafe; "A presentation involves motivating listeners to accept a new idea, alter an existing opinion, or act on a given premise." . Students first thoroughly understand the topic before giving presentation i.e. mastery on topic. e It increases confidence among students. . Good way to learn for only one student who is presenting. Students search lot of books to collect material e Teacher's supervision is important
Thank you Next Lesson will be on Objectives, Aims and Modes of Teaching Phases of Philosophy Rate and review the course Recommend the course to vour friends