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Women's Role In INM Evaluation Lesson- By Dr. Roma n Saini
The role of women in the freedom struggle needs to be analyzed from following viewpoints: 1. Those women engaged with Nationalist politics despite constraints of . social practices like the purdah system, backwardness and low level of female literacy Those women participated in INM through two parallel processes; a. 2. The domestication of the public sphere - women participated in the streets without compromising on their domestic values. b. The politicization of the domestic sphere women handled situations in their families when nationalism entered households through the activities of their husbands and sons.
Therefore, along with men, women too led from the front and emerged as game changers in the quest for independence of the nation. So, women as messengers, as supporters, as wives and mothers and as leaders were an integral part of the independence movement. The 19th century phenomenon opened up a whole new world for women in the 20th century and ultimately enabling Gandhian mobilisation' of women power in the nationalist struggle. Women who had spent their lives behind purdah came out to fight against orthodoxy, superstition, and communal separatism. . . . . From liberal homes and conservative families, urban centres and rural districts, women single and married, young and old came forward and joined the struggle against colonial rule in the final leg, QIM
Women's Organization They also formed many important organizations and appealed through these organizations to both government and nationality for cooperation with their demand for freedom. However, government support was often a compromise. Not from the beginning but since 1920 the nationalists were more sympathetic for the women's question because they needed their participation in the mass movement against the mighty colonial power. In the early, twentieth century many women's organizations came into the picture those were active in the public arena and also focused on women's political and legal rights.
The women's fight for suffrage was granted in Government of India Act 1935 where the ratio of female voters was raised 1:5 and women also got reserved seats in legislative. Similarly, various social legislation and acts tried to improve gender parity For example, the Sarda Act of 1929 (which fixed the minimum age of marriage for females at 14 and male at eighteen), laws defining women's women's right to property, inheritance, divorce, to restrain dowry and control position .
Women And Partition According to Sumit Sarkar, it was women and peasants who represented the ultimate site of purity unspoiled by the modern world and western education This form of purity and chastity of the female body has been linked to the nation-state. This is the major cause behind that women have been seen as the symbol and repositories of the group or communal national identity . The link between the honour of community leads to two forms of control over women as their sexuality and their mobility.
.The first is the internal form of control by their own community itself since the loss of control over their own women is seen as a threat to their masculinity, their family and their community. Secondly, women find themselves more vulnerable to violence by other community. Hence, their rape, control and other forms of violence against them are seen as a more effective manner of humiliating and subjugating that community. Women thus become more vulnerable to violence in communal riots during the partition. .
A True Leader Gandhi's acceptance of a handful of women leaders into political representative bodies like the Congress was primarily based on the belief that they would achieve emancipation and in turn fight for women's rights through selflessly devoting themselves to the national movement. However, he discouraged them from politically organizing only for the purposes to bring the women's issues at the forefront. Hence, while some of the elite women were able to achieve high positions within the Congress they were still on the periphery of the important decision-making processes, as they were not representing an "organized constituency of women." . . .
Thus even when women some had access to the political arena their contributions were once again of a secondary and relatively passive nature. Thus by the pinnacle of INM Indian women across class, caste and religions barriers started participating in the anti-imperialistic and democratic process. Irrespective of the fact whether it was Hindu or Muslim women, the issue of women's emancipation was always treated as subordinate to that of national liberation, community honour or class struggle. Besides their strength and courage at battles with the British armies, notable Indian women leader also paved the way for social change against the all evils.