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Endogenic and Exogenic Forces, Weathering of Earth's Surface, Types of Weathering (in Hindi)
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Geomorphology is an interesting and easy concept and learnt by us in lower classes. Want a quick recap? Check this video. And remind yourself with weathering, erosion and mass movements and indulge the concepts in best of your answers.

Akanksha Soni
Architect with a love of travel for happy moments

Unacademy user

  2. CRUSTAL PLATES Earth's crust is dynamic and moves. (Plate tectonics) Earth's crust is dynamic and moves. (Plate tectonics) e Internal activities are responsible for outer surface variation. Intensities varies place to place. Internal activities are responsible for outer surface variation. Intensities varies place to place. e The internal forces are call . The internal forces are called as ENDOGENIC and external forces are EXOGENIC forces EXOGENIC forces- results in degradation of relief and then fills up other depression. This filling is known as GRADATION. MANTE Also, ENDOGENIC force continuously elevate PLATE

  3. GEOMORPHIC PROCESS The endogenic and exogenic forces causing physicalstress and chemical actions on earth materials The endogenic and exogenic forces causing physical stress and chemical actions on earth materials * bringing changes on surface of earth is Geomorphic process. .ENDOGENIC- Volcanism and diastrophism(process that elevate structure-*orogeny) e EXOGENIC- Weathering, mss wasting, erosion, deposition. (Geomorphic agent- wind, waves, water, moving ice etc) EXOGENIC PROCESS Ultimate energy SUN and gradients by tectonic forces e Gravitational force acts upon all earth materials having a sloping surface .They"denude"the surface by WEATHERING, MASS MOVEMENT and EROSION Process may be slow and affects the surface in long run.

  4. WEATHERING Action of weather and dimate oner earth materals i is mechanical tegration and chemical Action of weather and climate over earth materials. It is mechanical disin decomposition of rocks. 1) Chemical weathering .Group of process i.e. solution, hydration, carbonation, oxidation and reduction act on rock to dissolve. Water and air speed up the process. CARBONATION- Influence of carbonic acid on rocks. Lime and calcium carbonate are responsible for it OXIDATION- Process of rusting of rocks. It aggravates in rocks containing iron. HYDRATION- process of absorption of water by rocks during rainy season which leads to expansion of rocks. During dry season, there is dehydration of rocks leading to contraction of rocks. This process decomposes rocks.

  5. 2) Physical weathering Direct influence of atmosphere and climatic factors on rock without change in chemical composition. Thermal heating and cooling of rocks- Controlled by daily and annual temperature. During day, rocks are heated and in night, cooled. The outermost layer gets under direct influence of activity This variation brings 'peeling' of layer or Exfoliation. Freezing and thawing of water- It is common in high latitudes and altitudes. Waterpresent in fracture and gaps freezes in winter and melts during summer. Repeatation for a long time disinte rates rocks. disintegrates rocks Unloading of rocks and pressure release-Inner part of rock is compressed under influence of massive pressure. Once rocks on top are removed by weathering, pressure is released. There is then expansion of rocks.This expansion urges disintegration.

  6. 3) Biotic factors It includes 3) Biotic factors- It includes growth of plants, movement of animals and human interferences etc. This is responsible for disintegration as gaps are created in rocks due to growth of roots Associated with biodecomposition of dead plants and animals, it forms humus and humic acid. In presence of humic acid, decomposition is accelerated. MASS MOVEMENT Movement of mass of rock down the slopes under the force of GRAVITY.They may be slow or fast. No geomorphic agent participate in it. Causes removal of support trom below. overloading by addition of materials -occurrence of earthquake, explosions -excessive seepage -indiscriminate removal of natural vegetation