Kubendran S M is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
POVERTY -by SM KUBENDRAN
ABOUT ME - B.E (ECE) from Anna UNIVERSITY Interests: writing stories & poem in Tamil, MOVIES, Listening music, Yoga Loves to Share informative and Motivate people TAKEN CLASSES IN ORGANIZATIONS - RATE ,REVIEW, RECOMMEND Follow me on https:/unacademy.com/user/kubendran -# KarpathulAS
Definitions ofPoverty Poverty has been defined in a number of ways. The World Bank (1990) has defined poverty as "the inability to attain a minimal standard ofliving", Dandekar (1981) "want of adequate income, howsoever defined is poverty..." Thus, lack of adequate income to buy the basic goods for subsistence living is an important element in the definitions of poverty
Types of poverty Absolute poverty and Relative poverty When people do not have adequate food,clothing and shelter, we say they are in absolute poverty - Relative poverty refers to differences in income among different classes of people or people within the same group or among people of different countries Temporary or chronic poverty like India, when there is poor rainfall, the crops fail and the farmers temporarily enter into a poverty sample. But when they are poor for long, then we call it chronic or structural poverty
Income based or Economic view of poverty For example, one can think of being housing poor, healthcare poor, education poor, poor in the possession of desirable physical or mental attributes. In many countries, poverty is correlated with caste and race. The seheduled-easteH ribalpeople-in India and the Blaeks-in the USA are classic examples. Poverty Line Poverty Line refers to the minimum income, consumption, or, more generally access to goods and services below which individuals are considered to be poor.
Poverty in India -Dandekar and Nilkantha Rath estimated the value of the diet with 2,250 calories as the desired minimum level of consumption " While the Planning Commission accepted Rs.20/- per capita per month (i.e. Rs.240/- p.a.), Dandekar and Rath suggested a lower minimum for rural population (Rs.180/- per capita p.a.) and a higher minimum (Rs.270/- per capita p.a.) for urban population at 1960-61 prices. - At 1968-69 prices, the corresponding figures for the rural and urban population was Rs.324/- and Rs.486/- respectively - On this basis, they estimated that 40 percent of the rural population and about 50 percent of the urban population were below the poverty line.
Montek Singh Ahluwalia's study of rural poverty (1977) arrived at the conclusion that the rural poverty declined initially from 50 per cent in mid 1950s to around 40 percent in 1960-61, but increased to 56.5 percent in 1967-68 - Ahluwalia used an expenditure level of Rs.15/- in 1960-61 prices for rural areas and Rs.20/- per person per month for urban areas, The poverty line is estimated periodically (normally every five years) by conducting sample surveys. These surveys are carried out by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO)
Percentage of Poor Number of Poor Year (in millions) 54.9 321 1973-74 307 38.9 1987-88 36.0 320 1993-94 26.1 260 1999-2000 Source: Planning Commission, Government of India. At present as per Government of India, poverty line for the urban areas is Rs. 296 per month and for rural areas Rs. 276 per month That is people who earn less than Rs. 10 per day is considered to be below the poverty line