CHAPTER 6 MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH PRESENTED BY Dr. SWASTI SINHA 37
Infinite variety of landforms because of 1. INTERNAL PROCESS 2. EXTERNAL PROCESS Grouping of landforms 1. Mountains 2. Plateaus 3. Plains
Mountain Range acier Volcano Plateau Basin Canyon Des rt River y Lake Inlet Delta Straits Peninsula Island Archipelago
MOUNTAINS Hill vs mountain Small summit, broader base Colder climate on higher altitudes Glaciers Mountains underthe sea Eg Mauna Kea in Pacific Ocean is higher than Mt. Everest (10,205 km). .Steep mountain slopes less land for farming Vary in heights and shape .3 types of mountains 1. FOLD MOUNTAINS 2. BLOCK MOUNTAINS 3. VOLCANICMOUNTAINS
FOLD MOUNTAINS Himalayan mountains, Alps (Europe), the Andes, The Rockies young fold mountains Rugged relief and high conical peaks Aravali Range in India The Appalachains in North America and The Ural Mountains of Russia-very old fold mountains Formed when sedimentary rock strata in geosynclines are subjected to compressive forces Loftiest mountains-generally concentrated along continental margins . "
BLOCK MOUNTAINS Created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically Uplifted blocks are called as HORSTS and the lowered blocks are called GRABEN. The Rhine Valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe, the Great African valley. " Horst Graben
VOLCANIC MOUNTAINS Crater (if filled with water, a crater lake is formed) Formed due to volcanic activity Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa, Mt. Fujiyama in Japan Cone Vent Lava Side vent Ash- Fumarole Crust
USES/BENEFITS OF MOUNTAINS Storehouse of water Irrigation, generation of hydro-electricity Rich variety of flora and fauna River valley and terraces-cultivation of crops Forests-fuel, fodder, shelter, gum ,raisins etc Tourism
PLATEAU Elevated flat land One or more sides with steep slopes May be young or old Height may vary Eg-Deccan Plateau, The east African plateau in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, The Western Plateau of Australia . . . Highest plateau The Tibet Plateau ( height 4000-6000 m above mean sea level) USES- rich mineral deposits, waterfalls, lava plateaus rich in black soil, scenic spots.
PLAINS Large stretches of flat land < 200m of sea level height .Level/slightly rolling and undulating Formed by rivers and tributaries . Fertile Ganga and Brahamputra-in India and Yangtze in China . Benefits-human habitation, cultivation
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