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Bricks, Beads and Bones - 2
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This lesson provides you the summary of Chapter 1 titled 'Bricks, Beads and Bones'.

Yasmin Gill
Referral Code-"yashi.gill01"/Qualified for UPSC mains/Rank 24th in Punjab PCS

Unacademy user
hindi me leson dena chahia
priest king sculpture found in Mohenjo Daro.
bharuch - located near river narmada
script is boustrophedon
Priest king scultpure was found from Mohenjodaro site
Bharuch is located on Narmada river
  1. Summary of Themes in Indian History-l By- Yasmin Gill

  2. About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE

  3. Bricks, Beads and Bones BURIALS-Dead generally laid in PITS. Some graves had pottery etc indicating a belief in AFTERLIFE Jewellery found in burials of both men and women-jasper, copper mirrors etc. Jasper-semi-precious stone . On the whole, they didn't bury precious things with dead CHANHUDARO- Craft production centre-beads, shells, etc. Nageshwar & Balakot- Near coast- Specialized in shell-making Carnelian-red colorstone Beads made of variety of materials, various shapes . Steatite- a soft stone- Often used to make seals + beads

  4. Bricks, Beads and Bones Source of lapis lazuli, a blue stone- Shortughai, Afghanistan Carnelian- From Bharuch in Gujarat Steatite- S. Rajasthan and N.Gujarat Metal- Rajasthan Copper- Khetri region, Rajasthan + Also from Oman . Both Omani copper & Harappan artifacts have traces of NICKEL Mesopotamian texts- Mention of MAGAN i.e. OMAN Typical large Harappan jars coated with thick black clay layer (prevent liquid percolation) found at Oman Gold-S,India GANESHWAR-JODHPURA CULTURE's evidence found in KHETRI region This had non- Harappan pottery and lot of Copper objects

  5. Bricks, Beads and Bones Fig. 1 A Harappan jar found-in Oman URAN /X Tepe Map 3 The Harappan C ritisation and West Asia

  6. Bricks, Beads and Bones . Terracota models of bullock carts-Important means of transport For transport, riverine routes as well as coast routes also used Mesopotamian texts also mention of contact with DILMUN (Bahrain), Magan and Meluhha (possibly the Harappan region) . Refer to Melhuhha as land of sea-farers Local Dilmun weights follow Harappan standard Seals- Used for long-distance communication Usually had a line of writing Otherwise animals used as motifs-most common-unicorn

  7. Bricks, Beads and Bones Script undeciphered to date Written from right to left and then from left to right Precise system of weights- Usually made of a stone k/a chert and . were generally cubical Lower denominations of weights were BINARY (1,2,4,8,etc) Higher denominations were DECIMAL Even metal scale-pans found

  8. Bricks, Beads and Bones

  9. Bricks, Beads and Bones Anclent Authority Large amount of uniformity in bricks, artefacts suggest planning at the level of some AUTHORITY Presence of a stone statue got labelled as 'priest-king'.Why? Because Mesopotamian history had priest-kings' There are lot of possible theories on presence of authority Most plausible- That it was a SINGLE STATE

  10. Bricks, Beads and Bones Decline of urban civilization While many Mature Harappan sites in regions such as Cholistan were abandoned, an expansion of population took place in new settlements such as Gujarat, Haryana and W. UP . Disappearance of distinctive artefacts . So a RURAL way of life took over and this came to k/a "LATE . Lot of explanations- Climatic change, deforestation, excessive These causes could be local but couldn't explain decline of an entire Deterioration in house construction techniques HARAPPAN" or SUCCESSOR CULTURES floods, shifting of rivers etc. civilization

  11. Additional points . Indra- Aryan God of War- Also known as purandara i.e. fort destroyer Harappa discovered by D R Sahni Mohenjodaro discovered by R D Banerjee ASI Director John Marshall in 1924 announced discovery of a new civilization Proto-Shiva seal depicts Shiva as a yogi and a Pashupati i.e. Lord of animals and cattle in particular . But in RigVeda, Shiva i.e. Rudra is not depicted so Shamans- Men & women claiming magical powers to heal . Cholistan - Desert area of Pakistan bordering Thar desert . Alexander Cunningham- 1st DG of ASI- Father of Indian Archaelogy Faience- Material made of ground sand or silica mixed with color a gum and then fired