Summary of Themes in Indian History-l By- Yasmin Gill
About me .Yasmin Gill .BE(EEE) from UIET,PU .Qualified for UPSC Mains 2015 in 1st attempt State rank 24 in Punjab Civil Services 2015 Stood 10th at State Level in Young Genius Awards conducted by NSTSE
Bricks, Beads and Bones Indus Valley Civilization (2600- Indus Valley Civilization Mature Harappan Phase (2600-1900 BCE) 1900 BC) is also k/a HARAPPAN CULTURE By culture, we mean- A group of objects of distinctive style found together in a specific area and time Harappa was the 1st site discovered What we usually call as Harappan civilization is the Mature Harappan culture Early and Later cultures also found in same areas .
Livelihood Mainly on SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES . Grains found-wheat, barley, etc. Millets found from sites such as GUJARAT Finds of rice RELATIVELY rare . Bull was known- So may be oxen for ploughing Terracotta models of plough-Cholistan and Banawali(Haryana) Evidence of ploughed field at KALIBANGAN, Rajasthan-Furrows at right angles- May be two crops simultaneously .
Bricks, Beads and Bones Most sites in SEMI-ARID areas where IRRIGATION needed Traces of CANAL found at SHORTUGHAI at Afghanistan, but not in Punjab or Sind . Likely that WELLS also used Water reservoirs at DHOLAVIRA, GUJARAT Animals- Cattle, sheep, goat, pig etc. These animals were domesticated Bones of gharial and fish also found
Bricks, Beads and Bones Harappan civilization had many urban centres Most well-known site is Mohenjodaro Division of settlement into 2 sections-Smaller & Higher CITADEL on WEST and Larger & Lower LOWER TOWN on EAST Citadel was higher because buildings were constructed on MUD BRICK PLATFORMS Citadel was walled to separate it from Lower Town . Lower town was also walled Exceptions- Dholavira had whole settlement fortified Lothal-Citadel was not walled On Citadel, we had structures used for public purposes- For e.g Great Bath, warehouses
Bricks, Beads and Bones No encroachment allowed. So no building activity allowed outside planned settlement area Bricks- Either sun-dried or baked and were of a STANDARDISED RATIO-L:B:H- 4:2:1 This construction required LABOUR MOBILISATION at a large scale . . .
Great Bath .Large rectangular tank Surrounded by corridor on all 4 sides . 2 flights of steps in North and in South leading to tank Watertight by usage of mortar of .Rooms on 3 sides, in one of which .Water from tank flowed into a huge . To the north was a smaller building . Uniqueness and its presence orn gypsum was a large well drain with 8 bathrooms Citadel indicate ritual bathing as the purpose
Bricks, Beads and Bones .Roads in grid pattern-intersecting at right angles Planned DRAINAGE system .Seems that streets with drains laid first and then houses made Residential buildings .Houses centered around a COURTYARD-centre of activities Privacy-No windows on ground level+ Main entrance doesn't give a direct view Sanitation- Houses had own bathrooms paved with bricks . Bathroom drains connected to street drains .Main channels made of bricks set in mortar+ Covered with loose bricks for cleaning .At some places, even limestone used for covers Long drainage channels had sumps at intervals for cleaning . Drainage not just in larger but in smaller cities as well For e.g. Lothal, houses were made of mud bricks, drains were of burnt
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Qualified for UPSC CSE 2015 mains/Rank 24th in Punjab PCS/ Quality is never an accident, it's always the result of high intention