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Electoral Reforms in lndia Part 1
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Topics Covered o Introduction Electoral Reforms before 1996 o Electoral Reforms of 1996 o Electoral Reforms after 1996 Electoral Reforms since 2010
Introduction "An election is a moral horror, as bad as a battle except for the blood; a mud bath for every soul concerned in it." George Bernard Shaw . Electoral reform means introducing fair electoral systems for It also includes regaining of the existing systems to enhance and . The various reforms have been introduced in our electoral system, conducting fair elections. increase the efficiency of the same. election machinery and election process. These can be discussed below
Electoral Reform:s Before 1996 Of 1996 After 1996 Since 2010 Electoral Reforms before 1996 Lowering of Voting age to 18 years [61st Constitution Amendment Act, 1988] oting Machin general elections (entire state) to the Assembly of Goa in 1999]
Electoral Reforms before 1996 Deputation to Election Commission. Increases in number of proposers [To eliminate non-serious candidate] . . Booth Capturing [Adjournment of poll or countermanding of elections in case of booth capturing]
Electoral Reforms of 1996 Listing of Names of Candidates, has classified into three categories for the purpose of listing of their names. They are (i) Candidates of recognised political parties (ii) Candidates of registered-unrecognised political parties (ii) Other (independent) candidates Prohibition on the Sale of Liquor Time Limit for By-Elections [Not in two case: When vacancy is to filled within less than one year, If EC is difficult to hold the by-elections within the said period] .
Electoral Reforms of 1996 Contestants Restricted to Two Constituencies Disqualification for Insulting the National Honour Act (i) Offence of insulting the National Flag (ii) Offence of insulting the Constitution of India (iii) Offence of preventing the singing of National Anthem These are comes under the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act of 1971 Holiday to Employees on the Polling Day Prohibition of Arms .
Electoral Reforms after 1996 Presidential and Vice Presidential Elections [Increase in number of Elector and Proposer; Increase in Security deposit] Voting through Postal Ballot and Facility to Opt to Vote Through Proxy . e . Declaration of Criminal Antecedents, Assets, etc., by Candidates . Changes in Rajya Sabha Elections [Open Ballot; For contesting candidate domicile requirement is removed] Parties Entitled to Accept Contribution [Incase, >20000 report to the ECI] . o Allocation of Time on Electronic Media
Electoral Reforms since 2010 Strict action against Officials Included in Corrupt Practice. Increase in Security Deposit [ Lok Sabha: 10000 to 25000 and in Vidhana Sabha: 5000 to 10000] Appellate Authority within the District [Electoral issues lie before the District Magistrate or Additional District Magistrate or Executive Magistrate or District Collector or an officer of equivalent rank] . Voting Rights to Citizens of India Living Abroad . Ceiling on Election Expenditure Increased