Collection: 2 Lesson: Basics of Climatology Presented by Bhumika Saini
Introduction Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere in a region and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variations Climate is defined as statistical weather information that describes the variation of weather at a given place for a specified interval. They are both used interchangeably sometimes but differ in terms of the length of time they measure and what trends affect them
Climate Weather Describes the average conditions expected at a specific place at a given time. A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five components atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surface, and biosphere Describes the atmospheric conditions at a specific place at a specific point in time. Weather generally refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation Climate may include precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine wind velocity, phenomena such as fog, frost, and hail storms over a long period of time Weather includes sunshine, rain, cloud cover, winds, hail, snow, sleet freezing rain, flooding, blizzards, ice storms, thunderstorms, steady rains from a cold front or warm front, excessive heat, heat waves and more
Climate Weather ate Weather Climatology Meteorology Aggregating weather statistics over periods of 30 years ("climate normal") Real-time measurements of atmospheric pressure temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity precipitation, cloud cover, and other variables Measured over a long period Measured for short term
Factors Affecting Climate Distance from the sea Ocean currents Direction of prevailing winds Distance from the equator Shape of the land The El Ni o phenomenon
Distance from the Sea (Continentality) . The sea affects the climate of a place. Coastal areas are cooler and wetter than inland areas. Clouds form when warm air from inland areas meets cool air from the sea. The centre of continents are subject to a large range of temperatures. In the summer, temperatures can be very hot and dry as moisture from the sea evaporates before it reaches the centre of the land mass.
4 14 egdora.commaps Warm summers & cool Hot sumimers & c ae winters winters
Direction of Prevailing Winds Winds that blow from the sea often bring rain to the coast and dry weather to inland areas Winds that blow to Britain from warm inland areas such as Africa are warm and dry. Winds that blow to Britain from inland areas such as central Europe are cold and dry in winter. These winds are cool in the summer, mild in the winter and tend to bring wet weather.
ie: yellow trade winds (northeasterly) yellow-trade winds (northeasterly : ho
Ocean Currents Ocean currents can increase or reduce temperatures. . E.g. The main ocean current that affects the UK is the Gulf Stream Alaska N. Padiic Dr Canary N. Paciik Calforna Quif Strea Karoshlo N. Equatoral N. Dauatorial N. Equatorial Counter Cqustorial Counter Equatorid CourterK Peru W. Austrela E. Australe Aguhas . Paciia $ Indian Antarcte Sutpolar
-North Pole 60ON Low angle of incoming sunlight 30ON U- Tropic of Cancer Sunlight directly overhead -0 (equator) Tropic of -Capricorn 30 S Low angle of incoming sunlight 60 S South Pole Atmosphere
Human influence The factors above affect the climate naturally-as populations increased and trees were cut down in large numbers. . A reduction in trees have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The Industrial Revolution, starting at the end of the 19th Century, has had a huge effect on climate.
200 Highest-2.0 m Observed Scenarios 160 120 Intermediate-High 1.2 m 80 Intermediate-Low 0.5 m 40 Lowest-0.2 m .40 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 Year
B Tech from MNIT, Jaipur. Appeared in CSE interview thrice. Loves teaching and playing badminton.