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Alzheimer's - Nipping it in the Bud : Part 1
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Part 1 of the Article " Alzheimer's - Nipping it in the bud " Published in Science Reporter - December 2018

Ajay Kumar Muchakurthi is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Ajay Kumar Muchakurthi
Appeared UPSC CSE Mains,M.A.(Public Administration), B.Tech(CSE)

U
Unacademy user
sir pls make course for class 7th to 10th it wil be grt hlp for us . tyu in advance
  1. Summary of Science Reporter - December 2018 Presented by Ajay Kumar Muchakurthi


  2. Courses: 3000+ MCQ's from Previous Papers with Analysis Analysis of Daily Current Affairs Daily Current Affairs MCQ's International Relations Summary - Yojana Summary -Science Reporter Indian Polity https://www.unacademy.com/user/ajaykumaro692


  3. Alzheimer's - Nipping it in the Bud: Part


  4. Alzheimer's - Nipping it in the Bud As per Alzheimer's Disease International - New case in every 3.2 seconds Every year: 9.9 Million people added to global list Actual numbers - May be much higher Higher cases in Developing Nations- Lack of awareness and economic challenges : More than developed nations More than 58% cases-Low and middle-income countries


  5. By 2050 : Expected to rise to 68% 90% cases go unnoticed in India Mortality rate through this is increasing Alzheimer's Disease : Second leading cause of death in the world Improved availability of health care - Life expectancy has increased Alzheimer's Disease - Affects geriatric population Led to risk of Alzheimer's Disease


  6. As of now : More than 50 million people has Alzheimer's Disease For every 20 years : Expected to double Fastest qrowth - China, India and other South Asian countries


  7. What is Alzheimer's Disease? Alzheimer's Disease : Neurodegenerative Disorder - Comes under Dementia Dementia - Group of symptoms associated with decline in memory Affects elderly in age group of 65 -85 years Alzheimer's Disease: Gradual death of brain cells Due to formation of clumps around the nerve cells : Degenerates the cells


  8. As cells die - Functions that comes under cells deteriorate Gradually leads to Memory loss Inability to recognise faces or recall names Slurred speech, Mobility and vision Behaviours of acute aggression, apprehension and agitation


  9. Impairment of executive functions - Organising, planning, rationality and sequencing Later stages: May lose ability to walk Becomes bedridden and depend on caregivers Women are more prone than men


  10. Brain basics Human Brain - Nearly 1oo billion neurons Neurons - Branch out to form a network Memories and thoughts - Transfer in form of tiny electrical pulses Not physically connected with each other Forms non-contact junctions called Synapses Brain : Trillions of Synapses


  11. Dendrites Synapse Microtubule Neurofibrils Neurotransmitte Receptor Synaptic vesicles Synapse (Axoaxoni Synaptic cleft Axonal terminal r, o 9 Rough ER Nissl body) 9 Polyribosomes Ribosomes Node of Ranvier pse at Solgi apparatus Myelin Sheath (Schwann cell) Axon hillock Nucleus Nucleolus embrane crotubule Nucleus Schwann cel) 0 ndrion Smooth ER Microfilament Microtubule Axon Synapse (Axodendrit Dendrites


  12. Synapses Information is transferred from one cell to other through chemicals called neurotransmitters At Junctions : Burst of neurotransmitters diffuses into receptor neurons : Passes the message Several neural patterns - Formed in brain Defines thoughts, memories, actions etc.,


  13. Alzheimer's - Nipping it in the Bud: Part 2


  14. aques and Tangles - Accumulate Leads to pathological conditions - Oxidative stress and Neuroinflammation Leads to death of brain cells Alzheimer's Disease Brain - Degrade gradually Cells die- Corresponding finctions wither away: Shrinking ofbrair Few medications - Temporary relief Alzheimer's Disease -Can be only managed Healthy Severe Brain Alzheimer's


  15. Scientists conducted preclinical development of Saffron extract IIIM 141 Why ?? Integrate it into modern medicine in the form of slow releasing nutraceutical ormula Tested on various cellular and animal models Patent - pending for their product


  16. Saffron - Acts as inhibitors on beta-amyloid plaques Compound IIIM -141 extracted from stigma of saffron flowers Compound - Protective and therapeutic effect on Alzheimer's Disease


  17. Saviour Duo Two compounds 'Crocin' and 'crocetin' - Key roles as inhibitors of beta-amyloid plaques Crocin - hydrophilic carotenoid glycoside (Bioactive metabolite) Metabolites - Natural reaction intermediaries and products of physiological metabolism : Trigger essential activities in human body When Crocin is hydrolysed in stomach - Transforms to aglycone, Crocetin (fat soluble compound) Crocetin - Lipophilic


  18. Crocin - Major constituent of Saffron extract Slowly released from capsule over a long period Crocin Hydrolyses inside gastrointestinal tract to aglycone, crocetin Crocetin - Gets easily permeated across cell membrane and reaches blood circulation metabolite crocetin Produces higher ratio in blood circulation