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want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE Important News Articles Taking Delhi/Noida edition as the base Ro Page 1: SC reinstates Alok Verma as CBI Director, but clips his wings 2. 1. Page 1: Lok Sabha passes Citizenship Bill amidst Congress walkout 3. Page 10: Protests lock down northeast y haver 4. Page 1 : 10% quota for the poor gets LS approval pho revan 5, Page 10: 10% quota faces several legal and political challenges he a 6. Page 10: Six Assam groups to be accorded ST status 7. Page 6: Mixed response to ST status to 6 Assam groups 8. Page 7: General strike evokes mixed response, affects PSU banks 9. Page 7: SC sets aside Delhi HC ruling against Monsanto 10. Page 7: HAL faces severe cash crunch as IAF delays payment 11. Page 7: Irrigation projects delay led to jump in costs: CAG 12. Page 10: Lok Sabha passes DNA technology Bill 13. Page 10: Trade union Bill introduced in Lok Sabha 14. Page 11: Globalisation has not benefited all: Norway PNM 15. Page 12: Fencing the border ayes of pe ar nk h IPLIE 2 16. Page 13: Customers cannot be charged for availing tokenisation service: RBI lock e and t stay 17. Page 13: GST returns non-filers grow faster than tax base 18. Page 18: NASA's probe discovers a new planet
but th Editorial: 1. Page 8: Quota questions 2. Page 8: A renewed attack on privacy 3. Page 8: Staggering backwards ph reve 4. Page 9: Tracking cleanliness ink h cause ferent pu kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 1: SC reinstates Alok Verma as CBI Director, but clips his wings The Supreme Court on January 8 "reinstated" exiled CBI Director Alok Verma. However his duties will be confined to "ongoing routine functions" till the Prime Minister- led committee decides the question of his divestment in a week. The court ordered him not to pl undertake "any fresh initiative" with major policy or institutional implications in the heg interregnum rev Now, with just a few days left before the end of his tenure as CBI Director, Mr. Verma's fate hinges on the decision of this committee comprising the PM, CJI and the Leader of the Opposition.The Committee is set up under Section 4A () of the Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act. Their call would be based on the allegations levelled against him in a complaint filed by rival CBI officer R.K. Asthana. The complaint had led to a Central Vigilance Commission pu (CVC) inquiry and his divestment from office. Government and CVC's superintendence over the CB1? The judgment concluded that the CVC and the government acted outside their authority to unilaterally divest Mr. Verma and appoint M. Nageshwar Rao as the interim CBI Director in back-to-back decisions taken overnight on October 23 last year. The court set aside both orders. ink h cause t ferent kand stay
want fo be start but th The pivotal question: whether the government and the CVC should have obtained prior consent of the PM committee before divesting him as CBI Director on October 23. Section 4B(2) of the DSPE Act required the government to take the prior consent of the PM committee before transferring a CBI Director mid-tenure. The prior approval provided "an adequate safeguard to ensure the independence of the office." This legislative intent was apparent from the fact that Parliament, on its own e Volition, amended the DSPE Act through the Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013 These amendments had included Section 4A and Section 4B Key instructions cause ferent ON VERMA'S ROLE CBI Director should desist from taking any major policy decisions till a committee takes a call on his His role is confined to the "exercise of the ongoing routine functions without any fresh initiative, having no major policy : PLI kand stay ON DIVESTMENT OF POWER The panel, comprising the PM, the CJI and the Leader of the Opposition, have to decide on divestment of power of CBI chief in a week e clear legislative intent is to ensure co insulation of the office of CBI Director fromall Image source: The Hindu
want fo be start but th rev CBI vs CBI Nov. 2: Advocate Prashant Bhushan moves the Supreme Court on behalf of Common Cause. an Oct. 23 Late in the night, DoPT divests Verma of all his statutory obligations, appoints M. Nageswara Rao intenim CBl Director Oct. 24: Verma Now. 12: The CVC fles a preliminary probe report in a sealed cover in PS officer Rakesh Asthana appointed Additional Director The events leading up to NGO, challenging Asthana's appointment Nov. 29 Verma tells the Supreme Court that his fixed tenure of two years cannot be altered Oct. 15: The CB Dec. 3: Asthana made interim the petition July 12, 2018: While Verma of charges of CBl Director bribery allegations Alok Kumar Verma and Director Rakesh and the against Asthana, inquiry into a complaint asttwo top CBI officers Oct. 16: The CBl arrests Dec. 5: Fight between Jan. 19,2017:Alok Verma appointed CB Oct. 20: The CBI raids Devender Kumar, Dubai-based investment banker Manoj Prasad petition, seeking a Special Investigation Team probe into alle and the Centre gations of corruptionon Verma's plea against CBl officials, ncluding Asthana weeks, seeks re- of two yearsto to know who will attencd Centre telis the court Oct. 22: Asthana appointed Asthana has no mandate it. The CBl replies that Jan. 8, 2019 The court sets aside the Centre's decision divesting Verma of his powers and sending him on leave, but restrains him from taking policy decisions to represent Verma kand stay Image source: The Hindu
want fo be start but th Page 1: Lok Sabha passes Citizenship Bill amidst Congress walkout The Lok Sabha on January 8 passed the contentious Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019, that seeks to provide citizenship to non-Muslims from Bangladesh,Pakistan and Afghanistan who have come to India till December 3 1 , 2014 phe veHome Minister, who introduced the Bill in the Lok Sabha, said the six communities rev Hindus, Jains, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Parsis from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan faced "discrimination and religious persecution" and they "have no place to o, except India." ink h The Congress said many States opposed the Bill and it should be sent to a select committee. As the government rejected the demand, the party MPs walked out. ferent It also reduces the mandatory requirement of 12 years stay in India to seven years to be , pu, eligible for citizenship if they do not possess any document. Assam alone should not have to bear the entire burden. The beneficiaries of Citizenship Amendment Bill can reside in any State of the country. The burden of those persecuted migrants will be shared by the whole country kand stay
want fo be start but th There has been a strong resistance to the Bill in BJP-ruled Assam and other northeasterr States who fear it would pave the way for granting citizenship mostly to illegal Hindu migrants from Bangladesh, who came after March 1971, in violation of the 1985 Assam Accord pTo become a law, the Bill will have to be cleared by the Rajya Sabha on January 9, the last eday of its current session. A divided House Parties which voiced their support and opposition to the Bill Vocal supporters BJP BJD (wanted Bangladesh out of the Bill) Key critics Congress Trinamool Congress CPI(M) AIUDF IUML RJD AIMIM ink h cause ferent pu kand stay You are giving ci the basis of the on ou can't run India like Israel This govermnent is makinga mistake Image source: The Hindu ASADUDDIN OWAIS . AIMIM
want fo be start but th Page 10: Protests lock down northeast Violence marked 11-hour shutdown across States in the northeast on January 8, called by several organisations against the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016. Tripura: In Tripura, at least six tribal protesters were injured, two critically, as violence erupted p near A gartala during a highway blockade called by the Northeast Students Organisatiorn rev Assam: Incidents of sporadic violence were reported from Assam, with the All Assam Students Union (AASU) among the first groups to call for the shutdown against the Bill. Protesters belonging to at least 35 organisations affiliated to the AASU damaged vehicles and squatted on railway tracks, forcing the rescheduling of 26 long-haul trains The protesters burnt effigies and demanded CM's resignation Other NE states: The shutdown affected life in Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur and Mizoram where shops and commercial establishments, government offices and educational and financial institutes remained closed. It, however, had minimal impact in Barak Valley in southern Assam cause ferent PLI kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 1: 10% quota for the poor gets LS approval The Lok Sabha on January 8 passed a Bill allowing 10% quota in employment and education for the general category candidates who belong to the economically weaker sections. The Constitution (124th Amendment) Bill, 2019, introduced by Minister of Social Justice ohe and Empowerment, was cleared with a majority of the members (319) voting for it, and four he#against. The Rajya Sabha will take it up on January 9. reve However, the Opposition questioned the haste with which the government introduced the Bill, on the last day of the winter session with an eye on the general election. The opposition wanted the measure sent to a Joint Parliamentary Committee. cause ferent > The 10% reservation will be over and above the 50% stipulated by the Supreme Court and is expected to benefit a huge section of upper castes, including Brahmins, Rajputs (Thakurs), ,p,u, Jats, Marathas and Bhumihars and trading castes such as Kapus and Kammas. The economically deprived among the poor in the other religions will also benefit. kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 10: 10% quota faces several legal and political challenges Who will the new 10% quota apply to? Those who are not covered in existing quotas and have a family income below 8 lakh a year or agricultural land below 5 acres. plThose who have a house above 1,000 square feet or a 100-yard plot or above in a notified re municipal area or a 200-yard plot or above in a non-notified municipal area are not eligible. What steps are necessary for its implementation? The 124th Constitution Amendment Bill, 2019, which the Lok Sabha has passed, will have to be passed by the Rajya Sabha by a special majority of two-thirds of the members present and voting, which should not be less than one-halfof the total strength of the House. If it is not passed by both the Houses within the term of this Lok Sabha, it will lapse. The Bill will also have to be ratified by at least half the State Assemblies Once the Constitution is amended to add economic backwardness as a ground for reservations, it will most likely have to stand the test of judicial scrutiny, as the Supreme Court had in the cause ferent PLI kand stay O. lndra Sawhney case capped quotas at 50% of the available seats
want fo be start but th What are the future implications, should the Bill stand judicial scrutiny? > If the Supreme Court indeed agrees to lift the 50% cap, all States of India can extend the quantum of reservation and "upper castes" will stand to lose in State services. If the Supreme Court rejects the idea of breaching the 50% cap. Economically Weaker Section (EWS) quotas can be provided only by eating into the SC, ST and OBC quota pie, rev which will have social and political implications. How will it help the economically less prosperous "upper caste" Hindus and such groups in other communities? If the EWS is treated as a category just like the SC, ST and OBC, a large chunk of general category candidates will apply for just 10% seats and the cut-offs can rise. While ideally the non-reserved 40% open seats should be open seats based on merit, there are complexities here too. he g ink h cause PLI kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 10: Six Assam groups to be accorded ST status . In a bid to calm tempers in Assam in the wake of vociferous protests against the Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2019, Home Minister said that a Bill to declare six communities in Assam as Scheduled Tribes (ST) would be introduced in the current session of Parliament. pThe communities that the Centre proposes to give the status to are Koch Rajbongshi, Tai he g Ahom, Chutia, Matak, Moran and Tea Tribes. The legislation will change the demographic status of Assam, making it a tribal-majority State. The government assured that full safeguards will be provided to protect the interests, rights and privileges of the existing Scheduled Tribes of Assam. A separate Bill would be introduced to grant the ST status to Bodo Kacharis in the hill districts of Assam and Karbis in the rest of Assam The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution is also proposed to be amended to strengthen the Autonomous District Councils. . . cause ferent . PLI kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 7: General strike evokes mixed response, affects PSU banks The two-day general strike call issued by 10 central trade unions evoked a mixed response in different parts of the country on January 8. In Mumbai, Kerala, parts of Karnataka, West Bengal and Odisha, public transport was affected, and commuters faced hardship. Steel and coal production units were affected, with the strike also impacting several plh he industrial belts and engineering clusters. rev Banking operations in some public sector banks came to a standstill, as well as postal and insurance services. Rallies and demonstrations were held in many places. The Centre of Indian Trade Unions claimed that 20 crore workers participated. In Mumbai, the national strike coincided with an indefinite strike by 32,000 employees of the city's transport undertaking, the Brihanmumbai Electricity Supply and Transport (BEST). The State government invoked the Maharashtra Essential Services Maintenance Act. In Kerala, public transport was affected as buses kept off the roads. In West Bengal, there were stray incidents of violence, including stone-pelting at a school ink h cause t ferent kand stay bus and vandalism in a few places. Strike supporters burnt effigies and tyres in some parts. As many as 22 policemen and 50 workers were injured in Rajasthan following clashes at the manufacturing plant of a Japanese company
want fo be start but th Page 7: HAL faces severe cash crunch as IAF delays payment A rare cash crunch in its 80-vear history has led defence aircraft manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. to worry if it can sustain servicing the Indian Air Force's aircraft after a month or two HAL has proposed cost-cutting measures such as reducing 20% of its 1 1 ,000-strong contract ph he labour and curbing non-essential travel. Advertisements and publicity are another casualty of the austerity exercise. The Defence Minister is slated to meet HAL CMD and the three Services chiefs on January 9 to iron out issues, such as payments and production orders for the DPSU Normally payments used to come from the IAF, its largest and main customer, within one to three months. It has unpaid bills of around R14,000 crore for delivering aircraft and maintenance services to the IAF. HAL will soon run out of money to buy spares and materials for servicing military planes and helicopters. At the end of March this year, after delivering some more fighter includin;g five Light Combat Aircraft Tejas, the bill will mount to 9.000-20,000 crore. ink h cause ferent PLI kand stay Some 2,500 small and medium-sized vendors supply to the defence PSU as their main customer.
want fo be start but th Lacunae in the planning, implementation and monitorin,g Projects and schemes were included under AIBP in violation of the programme's guidelines, resulting in irregular release of t3,718.71 crore. There were also deficiencies in the preparation and processing of Detailed Project Reports psuch as inadequate surveys, inaccurate assessment of water availability, Irrigation Potential e and Command Area and the lack of activity-wise construction plans The monitoring by Central and State agencies was lax. There were shortfalls in number of monitoring visits by Central Water Commission (CWC) and reports were not prepared in all projects evaluated. Further, compliance to issues highlighted in the CWC reports were also pending. ink h cause ferent Financial irregularities PLI Diversion of funds amounting to ,578.55 crore Parking of funds totalling , 1 1 2.56 crore Fictitious and fraudulent expenditure of27.58 crore. Short/non-realisation of revenue amounting to 1,25.39 crore. kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 10: Lok Sabha passes DNA technology Bill The Lok Sabha on January 8 passed the DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill that allows the use of the technology to establish the identity of persons in matters of crime, parentage dispute, emigration or immigration and transplantation of human organs. The Bill provides for establishment of national and regional DNA data banks and each data maintain the indices, including crime scene index, suspects' or undertrials' index and offenders' index Replying to the concerns raised by various members about the law being misused to ca unregulated DNA profiling, the government said that the potential misuse of DNA samples is cause t ferent not restricted to the biological material, which is collected under the provisions of this DNA Bill alone. Any and every blood sample collected by clinical laboratory has the same potential for misuse Trinamool Congress said the the Bill was a good step in the criminal justice system but cautioned about a possible scenario where it could be misused by investigative agencies while collecting DNA samples. PLI kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 10: Trade union Bill introduced in Lok Sabha Amid protests, the government on January 8 introduced a Bill in the Lok Sabha to amend the Trade Unions Act, 1926 The Bill, the government said, would grant recognition to trade unions, ensure representation of workers in tripartite bodies and check arbitrary nomination by the government. pl CPI(M) members walked out in protest Trade Unions Act, 1926 The Act deals with the registration of trade unions, their rights, their liabilities and responsibilities as well as ensures that their funds are utilised properly It gives legal and corporate status to the registered trade unions ink h cause ferent It also seeks to protect them from civil or criminal prosecution so that they could carry on their legitimate activities for the benefit of the working class The Act is applicable not only to the union of workers but also to the association of employers. Also, certain Acts, namely, the Societies Registration Act, 1860; the Co-operative Societies Act, 1912; and the Companies Act, 1956 shall not apply to any registered trade union, and that the registration of any such trade union under any such Act shall be void The Act is administered by the Ministry of Labour through its Industrial Relations Division. PLI kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 12: Fencing the border Fencing the border U.S. President Donald Trump says that there is a security crisis at the southern border that can be addressed only by a wall. A look at some of the issues concernng border security CALIFORNIA UNITEDSTATES DiegoARIZONA NEW MEXICO EI Paso TEXAS Big Bend Rio Grande Valley U.S.-Mexico rev M EXICO S21.6 billion cost of extending the fence 3,70,000 in 2017 the Government Accountabiity Office said the U.S. didn't have a good way to measure how well fencing worked to deter llegol migronts cross daky The changing of the 2005 demographics gure of 1.7 . Most of those miion Government shuts down a) Trump has asked border areto Pew, the longer Mexican number of $5.7 billion for construction of the wall. The House of of those in the for work but famiales and immigrants unaccompa from Mexico nied children fell to 5.6 seeking asylum2016, from 6.4 Democrats, is opposed to the idea of a wall kand stay - A report by n 2009 There were the issue has caused a the DepartOn the other 7,40,000 which has completed 17 ment of Home hand, the numcaes of visa overstays in land Secunity ber of asytum says 1,70,000 sekers in the people entered U.S jumed Bush-era illegally from nearly 70% the southermfrom budget days and is the second- c) The shutdown has furloughed 3,80,000 federal workers and Between 2007 and 2010, 882 km of fencing was done, at forced another 4,20,000 $2.7 billion, on border locations to work without pay Source: AFP. AP I Mapi Graphic N
want fo be start but th Page 13: Customers cannot be charged for availing tokenisation service: RBI The Reserve of India (RBI) has allowed all card payment networks to offer tokenisation service. However, the central bank has made it clear that no charges should be recovered from the customer for availing this service. pl Tokenisation involves a process in which a unique token masks sensitive card details. The tetoken is then used to perform card transactions in contact-less mode at Point Of Sale (POS) terminals, Quick Response (QR) code payments, etc. The RBI has allowed card payment networks to offer card tokenisation services to any tokern requestor, that is, a third party app provider. A card holder can avail of these services by g the card on the token requestor's app and after giving 'explicit consent' cause t ferent All extant instructions of Reserve Bank on safety and security of card transactions, i the mandate for additional factor of authentication (AFA) / PIN entry shall be applicable for pui tokenised card transactions also. This permission extends to all use cases/channels [e.g., Near-Field Communication (NFC) / Magnetic Secure Transmission (MST)-based contact-less transactions, in-app payments, QR code-based payments etc.] or token storage mechanisms (cloud, secure element, trusted execution environment etc.) kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 13: GST returns non-filers grow faster than tax base The number of tax filers failing to file their returns has been increasing in the 17 months of GST implementation until November 2018, according to an answer submitted by the Finance Ministry in the Lok Sabha While the number ofpeople required to file monthly returns has grown 32% from July 2017 reve eto about 98.5 lakh in November 2018, the number of people not filing these returns has grown 167% during that time, the latest Goods and Services Tax filing data showed. The data also shows that this is not just the case for monthly filers, but also for those under - the composition scheme, which allows for quarterly return filing. While the number of people required to file quarterly returns increased about 55% from July 2017 to 17.74 lakh in November 2018, the number of people who have not filed returns increased about 162% during this period. In other words, the number ofpeople failing to file returns has grown faster than the tax base ink h cause ferent PLI kand stay tself for both regular and composition filers.
want fo be start but th Page 18: NASA's probe discovers a new planet NASA's latest planet-hunting probe has discovered a new world outside our solar system, orbiting a dwarf star 53 light years away. This is the third new planet confirmed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) since its launch in April last year. The planet, named HD 21749b, orbits a bright, nearby dwarf star about 53 light years away, rev in the constellation Reticulum, and appears to have the longest orbital period of the three planets so far identified by TESS. Slow journey HD 21749b journeys around its star in a relatively leisurely 36 days, compared to the two cause ferent other planets_ Pi Mensae b, a "super-Earth" with a 6.3-day orbit, and LHS 3844b, a rocky world that speeds around its star in just 11 hours. All three planets were discovered in the first three months of TESS observations. It is the coolest small planet that we know ofaround a star this bright.The planet is about three times the size of the earth, which puts it in the category of a "sub-Neptune." However, it is unlikely that the planet is rocky and therefore habitable; it's more likely made PLI kand of gas, of a kind that is much more dense than the atmospheres of either Neptune or Uranus.
want fo be start but th Page 8: Ouota questions The BJP has sought to provide a 10% quota for economically weaker sections in public employment and educational institutions. This is a response to the erosion in upper caste votes in the recent Assembly elections and is more an election-time move. ph Two hurdles - . The 124th Constitution Amendment Bi wil have to be passed by two-thirds of the MPs present and voting, and the challenge will be to drum up the numbers in both Houses. 2. It is doubtful if it will stand udicial scrutiny. If enacted, the 50% limit on total reservation laid down by the Supreme Court will be breached. (The court did allow for a higher cause t ferent percentage in extraordinary situations, but it does not apply in this case.) Indira Sawhnev case - In Indira Sawhney a nine-judge bench had struck down a provision that earmarked 10% reservation for the economically backward on the ground that economic criteria cannot be the PLI sole basis to determine backwardness. Any attempt to amend the Constitution to extend what i kand stay limited to the "socially and educationally backward" to those economically weak is problematic. If the amendment is challenged, a question that will arise is whether financial incapacity warrants special treatment
want fo be start but th Parity between socially and educationally backward and socially and educationally advanced- The income ceiling for eligibility is likely to be fixed at 8 lakh a year which is the same as the 'creamy layer' limit for OBC. This creates an uneasy parity between socially and educationally backward classes with limited means and those who are socially and ph educationally advanced with the same limitatiorn. leg Nagaraj (2006) case-Exceeding the 50% limit offends the equality norm. In Nagaraj (2006), a Constitution Bench ruled that equality is part of the basic structure of the Constitution. It said the 50% ceiling, among other things, was a constitutional requirement without which the structure of equality of opportunity would collapse. Reservation for an adequately represented section in public employment? Reservations have been traditionally provided to undo historical injustice and social exclusion suffered over a period of time.The question is whether it should be extended to those with social and educational capital solely on the basis of what they earn. Conclusion -Though such a move will create deserving opportunities to those outside the purview of caste-based reservations, the question is whether it will stand the test of equality norm and justify th e principle used in providing reservation. Moreover, the move is more about politics than social justice. ink h cause t ferent kand stay
want fo be start but th Page 8: A renewed attack on privac On January 4, the Lok Sabha passed the Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018. The Bill flouts both the Constitution and the Supreme Court's judgment which gave the Aadhaar programme a conditional approval ph The Aadhaar judgement of September 2018- Originally, Section 57 of the Aadhaar Act allowed both the state and private entities to use the programme to establish an individual's identity pursuant to a law or a contract. The Supreme Court upheld vast portions of the law but unanimously struck down Section 57 insofar as it applied to private entities. The SC had struck down the use of Aadhaar for mobile phones and bank accounts warning linking Aadhaar details to these services will lead to commercial exploitation of an individual biometric and demographic information by the private entities. However, the court allowed the state to utilise Aadhaar, in cases involving the drawing of subsidies, benefits or services from the Consolidated Fund of India cause ferent PLI kand stay Concerns - Allowing the amendments to be carried out without any debate would be a failure of our collective duties.
want fo be start but th Section 33(2)- In its original form, the clause had allowed an officer of the rank of Joint Secretary to the Government of India to direct disclosure of Aadhaar information in the "interest of national security". The Supreme Court declared the clause unconstitutional and ruled that such disclosure should spring out of a request of a "higher ranking officer" and a phn separate scrutiny by a Judicial Officer. However, the Bill, merely seeks to substitute the words he # "Joint Secretary" with "Secretary" in Section 33(2) Government overlooked its pre-legislative consultative policy: The Bill, which makes amendments not only to the Aadhaar Act, 2016, but also to the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002, was introduced without any prior consultation. What is the pre-legislative consultative policy? ink h cause t ferent This policy requires the ministry introducing a law to publish the draft of any proposed legislation and invite comments from the public. The draft should be accompanied with a statement of the objectives behind the law and a estimated assessment of the impact that such legislation may have on fundamental rights. PLI kand stay Conclusion - The Bill seeks to pave the path for Aadhaar to permeate through every conceivable sphere of human activity and hand over the authority over a person to the government and private entities. The Rajya Sabha should reject this Bill
want fo be start but th Page 9: Tracking cleanliness The 2018 Swachh Rail survey recorded a general improvement in the cleanliness of stations. However, one-fourth of them suffered a drop in their overall score as a result of public feedback, which was poorer than it was in 2017 SS vignesh Radhakrishnan and Srinivasan Ramani analyse the data Methodology The Swachh Rail, Swachh Bharat survey ranks 407 railway stations across India Most affected | All 28 stations in the Western Zone (across Gujarat and parts of Maharashtra) bettered their cleanliness score in 2018, but poorer customer feedback in half of them pulled their average score (801) back. In contrast, in the North-Western (N-w) Zone, only 8% of stations had poorer feedback despite a higher cleanliness score, resulting in a better overall score (906) Each station is on a total of 1,000 marks. Equal weightage of 33% is given to process evaluation, direct observation and citizen feedback. The first two form the cleanliness score and the three together the overall score scored rev Cleaner, Less clean, Less clean, Cleaner No. of verage score W-C (17, 747) N-W (25, 906) S-E (10, 742) he g feedback feedback feedbackfeedback 65% Plotting the anomaly | In 98 of the 407 stations, the passenger feedback score dipped in 2018 compared to 2017, despite an increase in the cleanliness score. The graph depicts the change in cleanliness score against the change in citizen feedback score. Stations correspond to cires SC (37, 837) ink h cause (17,795) 12 In 98 stations, cleanliness improved but feedback was Central (34, 761) Southern (51,774)| 72 NE (14, 728.5) Eastern (15,702) Northern (61,676)54 N-E-Front. (22,739) 57 E-C (35, 666) SE-C (6, 787) E-C (13, 833) 18 18 o both scores improved 300 15 20 13 23 a pu 27 100 30 kand stay 100 38 -120 -80 -40 0 40 80 120 140 160 15 Change in citizen feedback score In 21 stations, cleanliness worsnedNC (20,646) but feedback improved Western (28, 801) 50 W-Western, E-Eastern, N-Northern, C-Central, S-Southern, Front.- Frontier I Zone classifications are available here: https://bit.ly/2REW76s arded es that IP