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4th June 2019 - Model Answers to the questions
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Venkatesh Chaturvedi is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Venkatesh Chaturvedi
Educator on Unacademy since 3 years. Have written UPSC CSE mains twice ( 140 Essay, 100+ in GS papers). B.Tech. from IIT Patna.

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(6)
U
Unacademy user
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the course would be more better .. it is bit difficult to understand
hello sir. but I really can not understand how and what to read for mains for upsc.
Introduction - Ocean current is known as horizontal water movement into the sea, generated by a number of forces acts upon sea water. When the wind blows over the water surface, the friction created, formed Ocean current. Ocean current formation factors Wind, Coriolis Effect, Breaking Waves, Cabbling, Temperature & Salinity are the major factors of Ocean current Formation. Based on the temperature ocean current have two forms - Warm Water Current form near equator, travel toward poles creating warmer climate near coastlines & Cold water current form near the poles, travel toward equator creating cooler climate near coastlines. Influence on Climate in Different Region Ocean currents are regulators of the climate in a different region of the world. Non Existence of Ocean current would result in temperature such as very hot at equator & very cold on poles. Ocean current helps to exchange the heat between low to high latitude. If wind blow over warmer sea to colder land then there is a high change in Precipitation (rain, snow, hailstorm) & The combination of cold current and descending high-pressure air system is turn out extremely dry in coastal areas. Example - The Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Drift, and North-western Europe have a mild climate while Peru, Chile & Africa have dry coastal climate. Conclusion Ocean currents help to maintain the temperature at the habitat region. Also help to influence marine mammal’s navigation, quality & nature.
Pretty good attempt. Points are wqell covered. Just keep in mind the presenttion on paper when you actually write :)
Somya Goswami
3 months ago
Thankyou so much sir
Somya Goswami
3 months ago
Thankyou so much sir
Cloud seeding Introduction: Cloud seeding is an artificial rainfall, weather modification method, which is usually use to increase rain and local water supply in a particular area. In this process silver iodide, potassium iodide and solid carbon dioxide(dry ice) chemical used. Liquid propane is also used because it produces ice crystal at high temperature than silver iodide. When temperature reaches in clouds in between -4 and 19 F (-20 to -7 C) then snow fall increased. Type of Cloud Seeding Static Cloud Seeding - Spreading silver iodide into moisture clouds that makes rain cloud more effective. Dynamic Cloud seeding - More complex than static method, aims to boost vertical air current in which clouds get more water and transfer into more rain Hygroscopic Cloud seeding - spreading salt on lower portion of cloud Application - 1. Helps to reduce drought issue in agriculture area 2. Helps to escape crops from hail storm, hurricane and dryness, 3. Reduce heat in cities 4. Improving economic growth 5. Improve air quality by settling down pollution in cities Challenges 1. Dangers of cloud pollution, air pollution & environment pollution increase 2. Cloud seeding might impact on weather change pattern on earth 3. Intense exposure of silver iodide chemical may cause hazards disease in Human & mammals Concerns The process of cloud seeding is in an earlier stage of development. Researchers are doing research on it. More changes to improve can be expected. Drought is a continuous fight, but before using cloud seeding, we have to understand its application & challenges.
"Liquid propane is also used because it produces ice crystal at high temperature than silver iodide. When temperature reaches in clouds in between -4 and 19 F (-20 to -7 C) then snow fall increased." - this point of unnecessary here (too much detail for no reason) Other part is very good
Conclusion could have been better
Somya Goswami
3 months ago
sure. I will do
Introduction: Urban Heat Island is a urban & metropolitan area, which is more warmer than its surrounding rural areas. Temperature difference in urban areas are greater than Rural Areas at night. Study shows that UHI have a medium effect on climate at the global level. Causes: 1. Land transformation is major cause increasing UHI 2. Machinery heat increase UHI level in Urban Areas 3. Larger downwind in monthly rainfall due to UHI effect 4. Decreasing air quality by producing pollutant gases such as Ozone 5. Decreasing water quality in summers & winter 6. Urban Heat Area puts stress in Ecosystem 7. UHI most noticeable in Summers & Winters 8. UHI increases due to Urban Canyon effect 9. High level pollution in Urban Areas Solutions: To mitigate urban heat effect, green roof, whiter roof & lighter colored surface should be use, which are good to reflect sunlight's & absorb less heat. Planting trees in the cities help to reduce the effect of UHI and increase albedo.
"Study shows that UHI have a medium effect on climate at the global level." - not required (medium etc. are not much quantifiable) Rwst seems good. Keep writing thre answers
Somya Goswami
3 months ago
Thankyou
Somya Goswami
3 months ago
Thankyou
Hello Sir, I have a question. As I am a beginner, I do not have so much knowledge of any topic. May I take help of books while writing my answer?
Yes definitely. Use all sources to write answers now
Kanupriya Goel
4 months ago
Thank you.
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