Hydrochloric Acid Formula
Hydrochloric acid is a combination of two words: hydrogen and chloride. Hydrogen chloride is a diatomic molecule that consists of hydrogen and chlorine atoms. Hydrochloride exists in liquid as well as gaseous forms.
What is Hydrochloric Acid?
Hydrochloric acid is an aqueous solution of Hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride is a colorless gas with a pungent smell. It is soluble in ethanol, ether, and methanol. The conjugate acid of hydrogen chloride is chloronium. Hydrogen chloride is a strong acid. Hydrochloric acid is also called muriatic acid. Hydrogen chloride can be prepared by hydrogen and chlorine. This reaction is exothermic. It is a strong acid because it easily donates H+ ions.
Chemical Formula and Molar Mass of Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrogen bonded covalently with chlorine. The chemical formula of hydrochloric acid is HCl. The structure of hydrochloride is planar. The molar mass of hydrochloric acid is the sum of the atomic mass of hydrogen i.e 1 and the atomic mass of chlorine i.e 35. So the molar mass of hydrochloric acid comes out to be 36 grams per mole.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Hydrochloric Acid
- HCl is a non-flammable, transparent, and colorless (or light yellow) liquid. When HCl involves a concentration of 25% or more, it is a fuming (hydrogen chloride gas, hydrochloric acid gas) strong acid
- HCl reacts with chromate, permanganate, or persulphate to generate chlorine. It also reacts with metal peroxide to form its chloride and chlorine
- Hydrochloric acid gas has a powerful pungent odor and is highly corrosive
- Hydrochloric acid is very dangerous to humans and animals. The inhalation of a large quantity of hydrochloric acid will cause intoxication and result in casualty. When hydrochloric acid is heated, it generates a large number of hydrochloric acid fumes
- Although HCl itself is a non-explosive or non-flammable acid, it corrodes various metals to produce hydrogen. If the hydrogen is mixed with the air, an explosion may occur
- Examples of materials resistant to corrosion by hydrochloric acid include polyethylene, acid-resistant glass, acid-resistant ceramics, acid-resistant rubber, etc.