Dr Praveen Kumar Agrawal is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
MENDEL'S EXPERIMENTS AND LAWS OF INHERITANCE Gregor Johann Mendel played the most remarkable role in establishing the principles of heredity Mendel performed his breeding experiments on garden pea (Pisum sativum) for nine years (1856 1864) Mendel studied the inheritance of seven different pairs of contrasting characters in pea plant. These characters are mentioned in following table: Character Chromosome No Allelomorphic Characters (Alternative Forms) Dominant Recessive Length of stem (Height) Position of flower Colour of pod Shape of pod Shape of seed Colour of seed/cotyledon Colour of flower 4th 4th 5th 4th 7th 1st 1st Tall Axial Green Inflated Round Yellow Pink (violet) Dwarf Terminal Yellow Constricted Wrinkled Green White
Why did Mendel Choose Garden Pea for His Experiments? Mendel selected garden pea (Pisum sativum) for his experiments because of following reasons: . Short life span. .Bisexual nature of flower. .Suitable structure and shape of flower for cross-pollination. .More number of contrasting characters. .Self-fertilisation could easily be controlled. Reasons for Mendel's Success Workers before Mendel were not able to carry out their experiments properly and therefore were unable to draw a concrete conclusion. But Mendel was successful in experiments and revealed out the hidden principles of genetics, because of the following reasons: . He performed all experiments with utmost care. . He performed all types of crosses (monohybrid, dihybrid, test cross, back cross etc.) to verify his findings He continued his experiments up to several generations. . He kept the plants of different characters in different plots to avoid any intermingling. .He prevented any chances of self pollination by emasculation (cutting of anthers). . He also used bagging method (covering stigma by a small bag) to present self pollination and other contamination) . He started his experiments with plants, having pure-line characters. .He not only carried out monohybrid crosses, but also carried out dihybrid and trihybrid crosses. He carefully noted the results and analysed them statistically.
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