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COURSE Principles of inheritance and variations Lesson 2 G. J. Mendel (Father of Genetics) Dr. Praveen Kumar Agrawal M.Sc., Ph.D., CSIR NET (JRF). SRF, GATE 21 Years of Pre-medical teaching experience
Heredity We know that like begets like. All living organisms produce offspring of their own kind. It means that an organism obtains its fundamental characters from its parents. But question arises-why and how? Answer to this question can be given by understanding the science of heredity. Heredity (L. hereditas inheritance or heirship) can be defined as the science that deals with the principles which govern the transmission of characters from parents to the offspring. Simply we can say that heredity is the study of transmission of characters from parents to the offspring. G. J. Mendel, who is known as Father of Genetics', was the first who experimentally demonstrated the mechanism of heredity (transmission of characters from parents to the offspring). On the basis of his experiments, Mendel proposed certain principles of inheritance (heredity), which are the backbone of classical genetics.
Gregor Johann Mendel G. J. Mendel was born on July 22, 1822 at Heinzendorf in Austria. His early life was disastrous, poor and difficult. In October 1843, he was admitted to the Augustinian monastery at Brunn in Czechoslovakia, where he took interest in natural sciences. From 1851-18 53, he studied mathematics and natural science in the University of Vienna. In the spring of 1856 he started his experiments on pea plant (Pisum sativum). In 1862, Mendel became the founder member of Brunn Natural Science Society. On February 8, 1965, he delivered his first lecture on pea experiments at Brunn Natural society. His paper "Experiments on plant hybridisation" was published in the journal of Natural Science Society. In this paper Mendel proposed his basic genetic principles. But unfortunately his work was not acknowledged. He was greatly disappointed. His health was deteriorating progressively. He, the pioneer of classical genetics, was died on 6th January 1884, amidst the feeling of despair. In the beginning of 20th century, three botanists, namely Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and E.V. Tschermak rediscovered Mendel's work and found it correct. Bateson (1901) also confirmed Mendel's work by his hybridisation experiments.
Chromosome No. Character Allelomorphic Characters (Alternative Forms) Length of stem (Height) Position of flower Colour of pod Shape of pod Shape of seed Colour of seed/cotyledon Colour of flower 4th 4th 5th 4th 7th Dominant Tall Axial Green Inflated Round Yellow Pink (violet) Recessive Dwarf Terminal Yellow Constricted Wrinkled 1st Green 1st White
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